Wednesday, 25 April 2012

₪ Greeks or Hellenes? Part I


Europe & Asia
   Twenty three years have passed since my very first lesson in the english language; and still, I clearly remember the first phrase that our professor wrote on the blackboard: 
Hello, my name is .................. ; and I come from Greece.” 
Hellas” I said with a lot of nerve, and full of spirit, only to cost me my first expulsion from the class, to the many that were about to follow in my educational career.

   Since then, the name of my country would trouble me for the next years, until 1995; when I would finally enter the first class of gymnasium and my first introduction to the ancient greek, and history lessons. This issue has troubled a lot of people outside Greece as well, and many wonder the obvious: If the Greeks call their country Hellas, then why we call it Greece; and its people Greeks? Well, the answer to this, is a very complicated skein of yarn with messed national, geographical, political, lingual and even mythological threads; and that is what am I about to unwind.
   The reason behind this fusion, is the discrimination between state and nation. Remarkably enough, despite the fact that the Greeks have thousands of years of history as a nation, they have a solid and commonly acknowledged state for a poor 182 years, of which only in the last 32 of them it is where we can see this country as a state, with boarders and democracy. Ironically enough perhaps, the land that gave birth to democracy thousands of years ago, counts only 32 years as a Republic. This, simply means that the Greeks, never before we had a country to its whole, so through the aeons the Greeks always used to see themselves (and still do most of them) as locals to their region.
   In the present day, the concepts of state, country and nation are indeed inextricably tied together, and it is extremely difficult for someone to understand the difference between them. This is a sociological and political result that the French Revolution brought to Europe and consequently, the rest of the world. Going quickly back in time, we will see many forms of government in the European continent, but where should pay attention, is Greece. The Greeks were the first in Europe to form most of the reigning systems that we know today. Monarchy, diarchy, oligarchy, feudalism, dictatorship,
democracy, imperialism and even theocracy in Delphi. More impressively, the people of this land have had the most names recorded than any other nation in history.

The ethnological map of the Greek regions
Crete • Laconia • Messine • Elis • Arcadia • Achaea
Argolis • Corinthia • Attica • Boeoetia • Euboea • Phocis
 Phthia • Thessaly • Magnesia • Aetolia • Acarnania
Epirus • Macedonia • Thrace • Aeolis • Ionia • Doria
Hellenes,  Greeks,  Argeans,  Danaans,  Mycenaeans, Achaeans,  Heracleidaes,  Dorians,  Ionians,  Aeoleans,  Makednoi,  Megnesians, Leleges, Thessalians, Yunans,  Yavanim,  Yaunas,  Romans,  Byzantines,  Rhomaeoi,  and many other, including the most important: Pelasgians.

   What is rather annoying in the case, is that all of them are both correct and wrong, while what they actually signify, is the region of each greek tribe that was in power at different eras. So, the question that rises is rather natural: Are all these races, tribes, people, a nation?
The Father of History, would be the first to state the main characteristics of Ethnicity in with his account of what defines identity.
Herodotus of Halicarnassus states:

• Kinship:   ὅμαιμον - homaimon, "of the same blood") 
• Language:   ὁμόγλωσσον - homoglōsson, "speaking the same language")
• Cults and Customs
:   ὁμότροπον - homotropon, "of the same habits or life")

and added to that:

«Όμοιο αίμα και όμοια γλώσσα έχουν οι Έλληνες και τους ίδιους ναούς θεών και θυσίες κάνουν κοινές και τα ήθη τους μοιάζουν»

¨Same blood and same language have the Greeks; and thee same temples and thee same sacrifices do they, the same; and thee customs of theirs; look the same¨


    Actually, what Herodotus said, is the very foundation and base of what we understand and study today as a nation, in sociology, anthropology and political science. In order to make it for the reader more easy to understand, some notable and important points have to be mentioned before this research goes further on; and the first points will be history and mythology, as they are recorded by Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Herodotus, Pausanias, Strabo, Aeschylus, Callimachus, Sophocles, Euripides Aristophanes and others. In addition, archaeological findings from Heinrich Schliemann and others, will be examined. Let us dive in the beautiful waters of greek mythology in the start of this quest and meet the greek myth, as said, singed and written by many historians and poets. 
   The most commonly accepted myth is separated into two major parts; the pre and meta cataclysmic periods. In the pre-cataclysmic part of the greek mythology, the first man in the land was Pelasgus. According to the Greek and Roman historians, Pelasgus was autochthon, meaning that he was born from the earth herself. This is a very interesting part, as in all the other stories that follow, all the heroes are always sons or daughters of gods or other entities. On the other hand, Pelasgus is mentioned to have come from the earth, something that except of being opposing to the rest, there is no particular reason or stories for that. 

Pelesgic imaginem
Cyclades
Neolithic Age
Etymological analysis of "Pelasgos":
from latin Pelasgus
from greek Πελασγός ⎜pron. Pelasgós 
Πέλας ⎜pron. Pélas which means ¨side¨, ¨next to¨ ⎜mod.gr. Πλάγια ⎜ Playa
+ Γή ⎜pron. Yee which means ¨earth¨, ¨land¨.

Out of this analysis, result the two major opposing and conflicting views:
• The Pelasgians were people that came from the neighbour land.
• The Pelasgians were people that were going to neighbour lands.
Interesting, are also the terms Pelargos and Pelagos. 
・Pelargós (Πελαργός) means Stork
・Pélagos (Πέλαγος) means Sea
☞ Archipelagos.
☞ Both of the terms are still in use in modern greek.  







  There are two main places that Pelasgus is supposed to have risen from; Arcadia and Epirus. Both the places are mountainous, with rich flora and fauna, whereas since ancient times they both have a bucolic aura. Reading more about him, the Greeks and the Romans, document the presence of his people in the following places:




Peloponesse
clockwise from 1´ o'clock:
  Corinthia • Argolis • Laconia
  Messenia • Elis • Achaea
Arcadia is located in the centre
Arcadia 
 According to Hesiod and Pausanias, Pelasgos came out of the earth, and both Arcadia and Peloponnesus were called Pelasgia at that time. Ephorus certifies also that all Pelasgians are of Arcadian origin, while Strabo in his Geografica mentions:

“καὶ γὰρ Ἀρκαδικὸν ἔθνος φασί, καθάπερ τὸ Πελασγικόν, καὶ πλανητικὸν ἄλλως, ὥσπερ ἐκεῖνο”

・ “and indeed Arcadian ethnos (nation) is thee, from which the Pelasgian and all the wondering ones, from it (the Arcadian)”





Useful Tip:
from the conjunction γὰρ  /  γέ  ⎜ pron. gár / yé , meaning indeed derives the english term Yes and the germanic Ja.
On the other hand, from the negative particle νέ  ⎜pron. , meaning not, non, no, comes the latin and Non that became the standard “No” in all western languages.

γέ  ⎜ νέ
ita. / fre. / spa. / por.   No
ger. Nein
nor. Nei
eng. No



Epirus
Part of modern day
NW Greece and SW Albania
Epirus

 In Homer's Iliad, Achilles prays in the Oracle of Dodona and says:

・“Ζεῦ ἄνα Δωδωναῖε Πελασγικὲ”

・“Dodonean Zeus -you- Pelasgic”


Hesiod also calls Dodona (in Epirus) “Πελασγών έδρανο” meaning ¨Pelasgian base¨



Attica, the State of
the City of Athens

Attica
Herodotus states:

・“τὸ Ἀττικὸν ἔθνος ἐὸν Πελασγικὸν”

・“The Attic nation is Pelasgic¨










clockwise from 5´ o'clock:
Euboea • Attica • Boeotia • Aetolia
Acarnania • Epirus • Macedonia
Thessaly is located on the centre

Thessaly

Strabo is his Geografica says:

・“And Thessaly is called "the Pelasgian Argos" (I mean that part of it which lies between the outlets of the Peneius River and Thermopylae as far as the mountainous country of Pindus), on account of the fact that the Pelasgoi extended their rule over these regions” 
Book V, 2.4 (Lacus Curtius)




Macedonia according to
Herodotus, Thucydides, Strabo,
Pausanias, Polybius, Xenophon,
Castor, Criton and Ptolemy.
Macedonia

In Aeschylus' Iketidae, King Pelasgus says:

・“τοῦ γηγενοῦς γάρ εἰμ' ἐγὼ Παλαίχθονος ἶνις Πελασγός, τῆσ δε γῆς ἀρχηγέτης. ἐμοῦ δ' ἄνακτος εὐλόγως ἐπώνυμον γένος Πελασγῶν τήν δε καρποῦται χθόνα. καὶ πᾶσαν αἶαν, ἧς δι' ἁγνὸς ἔρχεται Στρυμών, τὸ πρὸς δύνοντος ἡλίου, κρατῶ. ὁρίζομαι δὲ τήν τε Περραίβων χθόνα, Πίνδου τε τἀπέκεινα, Παιόνων πέλας, ὄρη τε Δωδωναῖα. συντέμνει δ' ὅρος ὑγρᾶς θαλάσσης: τῶνδε τἀπὶ τάδε κρατῶ” ・“of  this same native land am I anciently rooted indeed, I; Pelasgos, that the land I rule, and mee self from, the name, rightfully my people carry, the people Pelasgoi that resent in this land. The land of the river Strymon (the river of Macedonia), the land of Perraevoe, Paeonias the earth (south Yugoslavia), Dodona (Epirus) thee mountainous lands, me borders the sea defines ye, these lands I rule”

More documentations for Pelasgians we can find from:
・Homer in his Iliad (Β΄148-150, Ζ΄140, Κ΄434)
・Appian in (Book. 4 ),
・Herodotus in (book B, F΄paragraph 13, 16,17, 126),
・Thucydides in (book. Β΄ 98, D 108-109),
・Strabo in (book E, ιι, 36-41),
・and Titus Libius in (Book C ΄77),


Crete

Homer is his Odyssey says:

Knossos Palace, Crete
・ “Κρήτη τις γαῖ' ἔστι μέσῳ ἐνὶ οἴνοπι πόντῳ, ἐν δ' ἄνθρωποι πολλοὶ ἀπειρέσιοι, καὶ ἐννήκοντα πόληες· ἐν μὲν Ἀχαιοί, ἐν δ' Ἐτεόκρητες μεγαλήτορες, ἐν δὲ Κύδωνες Δωριέες τε τριχάϊκες δῖοί τε Πελασγοί” Οδύσσεια, T' 175

・ “Crete's the land is in middle of pontus (sea), the land's the people so, too many, and -in- ninety cities are thee, in -some- the Acheans, in -some- the Eteocretes, the Cydonian Dorians -thee- adored Zeuses (statues of Zeus) Pelasgians” Odyssey, T' 175






clockwise from 12´ o'clock:
Thrace • Hellespont •
Asia (Western Asia Minor)
Dodecanese • Cyclades
Thrace, Hellespontus, Ilion (Troy), Asia Minor, Dodecanese, Cycladic and North Aegean Islands.
From Herodotus:

“καὶ τῶν Πλακίην τε καὶ Σκυλάκην Πελασγῶν οἰκησάντων ἐν Ἑλλησπόντῳ, οἳ σύνοικοι ἐγένοντο Ἀθηναίοισι, καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα Πελασγικὰ ἐόντα πολίσματα τὸ οὔνομα μετέβαλε.”  Ιστορίαι, Βιβλίο Α', 57 “And -to- the Placeiens, and -to- the Scylacin Pelasgic cities in Hellespont, co-residents the Athenians became, and -to- any other human cultural customs, their name changed” (Ionia). Historiae, Book A', 57

Homer in Iliad says:

“Ἱππόθοος δ' ἄγε φῦλα Πελασγῶν ἐγχεσιμώρων τῶν οἳ Λάρισαν ἐριβώλακα ναιετάασκον·”  Ιλιάς, Β' 840

・“Hippothous led the tribes of the spear bearing Pelasgians, those that in fertile Larissa (in Thessaly) resided”  Iliad B' 840



Neolithic Age Cycladic figure
4000 B.C.
 For the Dodecanese and Cycladic islands, Herodotus says on his Historiae about the Graeco-Persian wars:

・“νησιῶται δὲ ἑπτακαίδεκα παρείχοντο νέας, ὡπλισμένοι ὡς Ἕλληνες, καὶ τοῦτο Πελασγικὸν ἔθνος; ὕστερον δὲ Ἰωνικὸν ἐκλήθη κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον καὶ οἱ δυωδεκαπόλιες Ἴωνες οἱ ἀπ᾽ Ἀθηνέων”  Ιστορίαι, Βιβλίο Ζ', 95

・“islanders thee, sevenandten gave ships, armed as Greeks, this also a Pelasgian nation, later to be called Ionian and for this reason, were called too the twelve cities that were under the Athenians (ruled) ”  Historiae, Book F, 95




Tyrrhenian (Etruscan) world
Tyrhenian Sea, Campania, Latium, Etruria (Tuscany)

 Atheneus Anticleides -an Alexandrian historian-, delivers testimony in Strabo (E chap.B) that the Pelasgians, particularly those who lived in Macedonia and Attica were those who later lived in and around Imbros, Lemnos, and Asia Minor, who later migrated to the Tyrrhenian Italy, to become the Tyrrhenian / Etruscan nations.






Cyprus

The Neolithic settlement of
Choirokoitia 7500-3500 B.C.
According to Herodotus, Pelasgians had migrated there from Athens, Salamis, Kythnos and Arcadia. Also, the king of Tegea; Agenor, was the founder of Paphos, hence the Arcadocypriot dialect that is still active as an organic dialect in the greek language. Later reports, mention that Aiakidis Teucer with some Trojan captives was the one who built Salamis in Cyprus.

・“οὗτοι μὲν οὕτω ἐστάλατο, Κύπριοι δὲ παρείχοντο νέας πεντήκοντα καὶ ἑκατόν, ἐσκευασμένοι ὧδε· τὰς μὲν κεφαλὰς εἱλίχατο μίτρῃσι οἱ βασιλέες αὐτῶν, οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι εἶχον κιθῶνας, τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κατά περ Ἕλληνες. τούτων δὲ τοσάδε ἔθνεα εἰσί, οἳ μὲν ἀπὸ Σαλαμῖνος καὶ Ἀθηνέων, οἳ δὲ ἀπ᾽ Ἀρκαδίης, οἳ δὲ ἀπὸ Κύθνου, οἳ δὲ ἀπὸ Φοινίκης, οἳ δὲ ἀπὸ Αἰθιοπίης, ὡς αὐτοὶ Κύπριοι λέγουσι¨
Ιστορίαι, Βιβλίο Ζ', 90

・“They so this send, Cypriots thee, provided ships fifty and a hundred, constructed here- the heads (persons, soldiers) had they, counted by their kings for the Greeks. Theirs (Cypriots) those the nations are: Salamis and Athens, and Kythnos and Arcadia, Phoenicians and Ethiopia (Africa), Cypriots their name is”

  Following the scripts that according to the ancient Greek, Roman and Egyptian writers, the Pelasgians were placed, their region covers parts of half Italy, almost all Albania, all F.Y.R.O.M., south Bulgaria, western Asia Minor in Turkey and all Cyprus, with modern Greece of coarse being the epicentre. Having the geographical area of the Pelasgians explained, we will proceed with the myth of Pelasgus.
   Going back in history, from most of the scripts that we have, Lycaon; the son of Pelasgus and second king of Arcadia, committed hubris when he served Zeus a dish of his slaughtered and dismembered son, in order to see whether the king of gods was truly omniscient. Zeus; in return to the gruesome deeds, transformed Lycaon into a wolf, and thunder-bolted some of his sons, except Nyctimus; who represents the night. Nyctimus' brothers Oenotros and Peucetios received help from him to settle in Italy, to the regions that we know today as Apoulia (Puglia) and Calabria, and expanded to Campania, Lazio and Tuscany.

Useful Tip

Lycaon turning into a wolf by Zeus
☞ From this story,  the greek term for wolf (even up to date) is  
Lycus pron. lekos gr. Λύκoς and from the strong relationship that the wolfs have with the moonlight, derived the term 
gr. Λυκόφως  lat. Lycophus  en. Twilight.  
Eventually the term wolf would become synonym to Light and having the vocative case in the greek language, the term is changed to Λύξ  pron. Lux of which the latin language used for Light.

  •  proto greek Λυκάον
  • greek Λύκος
  • greek vocative case Λύξ
  • latin Lux
  • ita. Luce,   spa/por Luz,   fre. Lum-Lumière,   nor. Lys,   ger. Licht,   eng. Light
   ☞ From Lycaon's son Nictymus derives the modern english term ¨Night¨ 

Deucalion & Pyrrha throwing
the stones
after the cataclysm
  • greek Νύκτιμος
  • named after Νύξ  pron. Nyx  eng. Níx, the very first entity in greek mythology. From Nyx, came: 
  • Chaos, Gaea and Eros who later created all the rest.
  • greek Νύχτα / Νύκτα pron. Nychta
  • greek vocative case Νύξ ⎜ pron. Nyx
  • latin Nox
  • latin vocative case Nocte
  • ita. Notte,  fre. Nuit,  spa. Noche,  por. Noite,  ger. nacht,  nor. Natt
  • eng. Night.



   This hubris from Lycaon, caused the Cataclysm as we know it in the greek mythology that follows after, with the Promytheus' son; Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, daughter of Pandora and Promytheus' twin brother; Epimytheus. Now that we saw briefly both the mythological and geographical parameters, we can proceed with the examination of the Pelasgian case with more information, facts and technological assistance.
   The first theory wants the Pelasgians to be the people that came from the sea, non native to the greek land and non related to the Mycenaean Greeks of the Bronze Age (3200 BC - 600 BC). One of the main arguments of the supporters of this speculation, is about the cultural differences of the Pelasgians and the Mycenaeans, while an additional thesis is the fact that many of the Mycenaeans would call them ¨barbarians¨, a term that in ancient Greece was used for the non-Greeks.
  What makes this theory vulnerable, is that the Pelasgian Greeks lived in the Neolithic period (10,000 BC) while the Mycenaeans lived in the Bronze Age (3,200 BC), so the cultural differences that are detected, such as the presence of swords and axes instead the standard daggers and/or spears in the graves, would be natural for a period that advanced weaponry crafting was impossible. Professor Della Seta reports that they preserved so many elements of Mycenaean art, and that the Myceneans may be recognized as a remnant of the Pelasgic people.
Demosthenes talking
to the Athenians
  Considering the second thesis about the Pelasgians being addressed as barbarians by some Mycenaeans, it doesn't prove an absence of lineage or kinship, so we can not be sure that the Pelasgians were not Greek, as the Greek people always had a very high tendency to un-hellenise the rest depending on their region and race, and being prejudiced towards other Greeks. So, who the Greeks considered as barbarian? The Greeks had an expression on the issue, describing the term:

・"Πάς μη Έλλην, βαρβαρος"
・“Everyone (who is a) non Greek, barbarian (is)”


  What the people should pay attention though, is that the term did not had the same interpretation as in our times. The meaning of ¨barbarian¨ would come after the sound of their languages (¨var var¨), something that to the sensitive on linguistic issues Greeks, would seem as luck of lingual elegance, hence uncivilised. Here is where the sciences of sociology and psychology are starting to get involved in combination with Herodotus first statement on what is national conscience and identity;
Kinship, language, and cultural customs. Having their blood-line and kinship established, the Greeks would be left with no other choice than to socially degrade their inner rival tribes, by criticising their language and cults. And when it comes to language, then things are getting pretty serious for the Greeks. Six tribes, four dialects, and a countless plethora of vocal alternations, would get into a marathon of "barbarising" one the other, and altogether the strongest one. Yes, the Greeks were quite restless to each other, even from the ancient years. As the decades passed, and slowly -but steady- the Ionians and the Dorians would prevail upon the Acheans and the Aeolians, the greek language would see its' dialects turning into sociolects, a transmission that finally found the Attic-Ionic Athenian philosophers, politicians and intellectuals, to practically mock the whole known world, including the rest of the Greeks.
Young Alexander & Aristotle
   The significance of the proper use of the language, would eventually get to be the highest social standard, in an early form of social racism and aristocracy. In modern day Greece, and particularly in athletic competitions as football, many Athenians sing chants that tease / mock and address the Thessalonians as Bulgarians. Now imagine what was happening in ancient Athens where the formidable orators and intellectuals, were waiting with their breath cut to detect a flaw and unleash hell in a glorious public humiliation. Demosthenes the most renowned orator, was often mocked, even by illiterate plebs, and suffered a lot for his incapability of proper pronunciation and syntax, which finally led him taking private lingual and orthophony courses. Later, and after he would have had the problem restored, he would name as barbarians practically all Greece, and gave speeches that would convince the Athenians to proceed into a civil war with Macedonians, which eventually led them to their doom.
   The social status of the Attic - Ionic dialect would transform Athens into the epicentre of the Greek civilisation and force all the intellectuals to settle there. In his effort to prevail over the other Greek races and unify them under one banner, in order to proceed into the Persian campaign; king Philip II of Macedonia, would meet a major obstacle: they were a Doric tribe that spoke the already low-class Aeolic dialect at its worst. It is enough to say that despite the fact that the Macedonian army was much stronger than both the Athenians and the Lacaedemonians, they were never under consideration for the leadership of a potential pan-hellenic army. As in a matter of fact, they were not even invited into conversations on the matter. Philip solved the problem with ¨Athenian¨ smartness and ¨Spartan¨ simplicity: He changed the official dialect that was used in the palace into Ionic and he got a dream team of intellectuals to move in Pella, with Aristotle being the finest of them. As for the ¨Spartan¨ solution? He simply declared war to everybody.
This lingual difference is depicted with a rather creative, yet accurate way, in Oliver Stone's film "Alexander" where the Macedonians speak with Welsh accent and the rest of the Greeks speak with an English one.
The School of Athens by Raphael

in the portrait:
Zeno of Citium • Epicurus
Anaximander • Empedocles
Averroes • Pythagoras
Alcibiades • Antisthenes
Alexander the Great
Xenophon • Hypatia • Euclid
Aeschines • Parmenides
Socrates • Heraclitus
Plato • Aristotle • Diogenes
Archimedes • Ptolemy
Apelles • Protogenes



   Today, the Greeks continue their ancestors' bad habits, with the current issue being one of the biggest problems within their society. Many social stereotypes considering their place of origin have been created and play significant role in their daily life. As Greece stands today, five geographical social zones have been established in the way a Greek sees the rest:
Athens, "above Athens", "below Athens", Cretans and "Islanders".
Among the most known and common stereotypes for example, is that the people below Athens are immoral, dubious and impolite, that the people above Athens are bumpkin and with terrible accents, that the islanders are weird and not well on their mind, or that the Cretans are peculiar and exaggerated, while if anyone will introduce himself as Athenian, he will immediately been seen as snob and arrogant. We can not but to notice, that the local
stereotypes within Greece, are identical to the ones that two and a half thousands years ago, with perhaps the difference that while in antiquity, they would fight over who is more glorious and cultured, today they argue on whose land produces the better oil and tomatoes. In addition, there is a very entertaining all around of insults and curses among the Greeks -which I would dare say; they are pretty informative and humorous upon their mothers', sisters', daughters' occupations-, yet the worse is to point someone as non-Greek.
   The custom is old, since ancient times, but the difference here is that when the ancient Greeks insulted someone as a "barbarian non-Greek" they were very successful on their goal, since they were indeed glorious. On the other hand, I am not so sure if it would be an insult or a compliment if someone would call me "non-Greek", with the rather unfortunate habits of today.
Studying on whom the classical Greeks considered as barbarian, we can discriminate a plethora of application, mentioning the most important:

Greeks & Barbarians
From the Graeco - Persian Wars

Later on his campaign to Persia
and after his entrance in Babylon
Alexander the great would
recognise the greatness of the
Persian Civilization
  1. The uncivilised or those with bad manners
  2. The people that had no City-State forms of government, but Kingdoms (e.g Sparta, Argos, Pella)
  3. The Monarchic states (e.g Thebes)
  4. The ones the language was not recognised by the Greeks, or Greeks that spoke the greek language badly
  5. The Aeolian and Doric greek dialects
  6. By the Ionian Athenians, practically everybody else, Greeks and non-Greeks
  7. In politics. During the -countless- civil wars among the greek city-states and races, the opposing state and/or its leader was a barbarian during the political speeches and lectures.
  


  For example, the Boeotians, inhabitants of central Greece, whose credentials were impeccable, were routinely mocked as barbarians for their stupidity and gluttony, while Agamemnon of Sophocles upbraids Teucer with 'his barbarous tongue,' would any scholar suppose that Teucer is upbraided with not speaking Greek; he is upbraided with speaking Greek inelegantly and rudely. Another example is Demosthenes of Athens again who is commonly acknowledged for his unbelievable hate for the Macedonians (Aeolians) and the Lacaedemonians (Spartans were Dorians) and he was not hesitating calling them barbarians at any given chance, something that finally cost him to get exiled. Also, in the case of Stratonicus of Athens, it was mentioned:

・¨And when he was once asked by some one who were the wickedest people, he said, “That in Pamphylia, the people of PhasElis were the worst; but that the Sidetae were the worst in the whole world.” And when he was asked again, according to the account given by Hegesander, which were the greatest barbarians, the Boeotians or the Thessalians he said, ” The Eleans.”


   Now, if we would conciser each Greek each race that a another Greek calls barbaric as a non-Greek one, we would be left only with Athens practically, excluding Olympia, Sparta, Corinth, Dodona in Epirus, Thebes in Boeotia, Pella in Macedonia, Argos and Mycenae as barbaric. 
The Lemnos Stêle
   In addition, in all the scripts that we have found, the alphabet that the Pelasgians use, is Proto-Greek, an alphabet that is now accepted as predecessor of Mycenaean Greek and successor of Linear B', the well known syllabic script that Sir Arthur John Evans discovered in Crete and that Michael Ventris, John Chadwick and Alice Kober, deciphered. More interesting is the fact that the latest years, the linguistic community has start to accept the view that the Greek alphabet did not came from the Phoenician one, but rather the opposite, since it is known now that the Pelasgian Cretans first colonised the Phoenician land. In addition, Linear A' which is widely accepted as the successor of Linear B', is commonly believed to be related to Egyptian hieroglyphics. Messing with the scripts and the archaeological findings even more, we find no evidence, or even signs of any population movement in the greek lands from the north, something that strengthens the view of native proto-greek people from palaeolithic periods or even more back in time. 








Crete, the centre of the ancient
Mediterranean world
as seen from NASA's satellite
    Only two years ago, in 2010, a archaeological team led by Dr. Thomas F. Strasser and Professor Eleni Panagopoulou from the Providence College in Rhode Island and the Greek Ministry of Culture respectively, with the assistance of Greek and American geologists and archaeologists, including Curtis Runnels of Boston University, shook for good the static waters of the scientific community and changed completely everything we knew about origins and human immigration history. 
   Previous artifact discoveries had shown people reaching Cyprus, a few other Greek islands and possibly Sardinia in Italy, no earlier than 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, while the oldest established early marine travel anywhere in the world, was the sea-crossing migration of anatomically modern Homo sapiens to Australia, beginning about 60,000 years ago. There is also a suggestive trickle of evidence, notably the skeletons and artifacts on the Indonesian island of Flores, of more ancient hominids making their way by water to new habitats. 
What changes now?  Everything


Tool fossils found in Crete in 2011.
Radiocarbon estm. is 190,000+ years old.
   In the location Plakias in Crete, the archaeologists found more than 2,000 tools, noted that the style of the hand axes suggested that they could be up to 700,000 years old. That may be a stretch, they conceded, but the tools resemble artifacts from the stone technology known as Acheulean, which originated with pre-human populations in Africa, while the Radiocarbon Dating method certified at least 190,000 years and is also confirmed by the Recent African Origin of modern Humans proof, also know as ¨Out of Africa¨ model, or shortly; ¨OoA¨.  This changes many things in human history as we know it, but more significantly, three things: 
  • The first sea travel in human history happened to Crete from Egypt or Libya at least 190,000 years ago
  • The theory of the Gibraltar Columns population immigration fails
  • Greece was populated much before the neolithic era, and to be more accurate; at least 190,000 years before.
     Finally, the myth of the ancient Greeks describing Pelasgos as native and autochon (came from this land) has finally a ground. Furthermore in the archaeological findings and the scripts that we have today, we know beyond any doubt that the Etruscan alphabet and the language that they spoke in nearly all Italy as we know it today, is identical to the proto-greek language that the Pelasgians spoke and wrote, bringing on the eye what Hesiod, Herodotus and Pausanias wrote among others, about the brothers of the Pelasgian king Nyctimus; Oenotros and Peucetios that settled in the Italian peninsula, hence the latin alphabet and language as a result.
   After examining all the information and facts that we have on hand; the thesis of the Pelasgians as the first Greek race in the land of philosophy looks very amiable.
DEVCAL. PROMETE
   According to Hesiod and his Theogony, after the cataclysm caused by the hubris of the Pelasgian King Lycaon insulting Zeus, the only one that was saved was Promytheus' son Deucalion. With his wife Pyrrha; Deucalion got three sons and three daughters;  
  1. Hellen (or Hellenas) 
  2. Amphictyon
  3. Orestheus
  4. Pandora
  5. Protogeneia
  6. Thyia

   From knowledge that we have; after the ¨cataclysm¨ (an event that most likely happened in a less cataclysmic version, as we see it the poems of Gilgamesh and Noah's Arc) a tribe from the north west part of Greece, and to be accurate; the Selloi ⎜gr. Σελλοί, were most likely the most powerful at the time in the greek lands.
Etymologically speaking, the term ¨Selloi¨ has three variates
(with perhaps the same meaning in general):


Dodoneus Zeus
  •  Σάλ  pron. Sál , meaning ¨pray¨ 
    Ψαλμός Psalmos eng.  Psalms
  •  Σέλ  pron.  Sèl , meaning ¨bright, light¨ 
    Σελήνη Selene eng. moon
  • Ἑλλ  pron.  Èll , meaning ¨mountainous¨ 
    Ελιξήριο elixir from el + xera, meaning dry hill, hence it's mythical abilities to revitalise (the dry lands)
What happens now, is that all can be correct, as the Selloi, were a tribe of priests that lived in Dodona of Epirus and worshipped the Dodonian Zeus. Taking as a fact the very high altitude, (mountainous), and that they were priests (pray + enlightened ) all the results are correct. In addition to that, the extremely high altitude of the Epirus mountains, may have played a significant role to a speculated oceanic cataclysmic disaster, resulting them to be the only survivors. As we also know, the greek language got the spiritus asper mark much after the "Dorian Invasion" and 1,200 BC. When using the spiritus asper and the other diacritics, we are able to pronounce with the correct breaths the vowels and to tone more precisely the word.  For example:

  • ἱστορία   ⎜ pron. Estorea ⎜ eng. History 
  • ὁρίζον ⎜ pron. Orezon ⎜ eng. Horizon
  • ἁλύσκειν ⎜ pron. Aliskin ⎜ eng. Haluscin   Hallucinate
  • ἕλιξ ⎜ pron. Elix  ⎜ eng. HelixHelicopter
  • ἕρπετό ⎜ pron. Erpeto  ⎜eng. Serpent 
  • ὑπέρ  ⎜  pron. Eeper  ⎜ eng. Super or Hyper 



The Genealogy Line of all Greeks.
From Nyx & Chaos,
to the Patriarchs.
   Now; I am pretty sure that the readers can not but to notice that in all the english terms given above, there is always a consonant in the start of each word in english, despite the fact that the greek terms start with vowels. The reason that those consonants stand there, is simply because the latin language (of which the terms ended up in the english one) never applied the Spiritus Asper change, as the Greeks did in theirs later. I will repeat here, that this change happened in the greek language much latter than the supposed post-cataclysmic time that finds the Selli tribe in Dodona in Epirus dominating, hence the presence of the starting ¨S¨ and ¨H¨ in the greek language.
   By removing the voiceless consonant ¨S¨ we pronounce their name (correctly) as Elli, with -i being simply a suffix the defines the plural genitive case, hence the Έλ - Έλλ El - Ell people. In combination with the fact that ancient and modern greek scholars place the city that is named Ellas Ελλάς in Thessaly, located only some kilometres south-east of Dodona; and bringing back the myth that Έλλην ⎜Ellen was the first son of Deucalion and later patriarch to the six major greek tribes, with Hellen settling in Thessaly after Epirus, we see how the Pelasgian Selloi got renamed into Hellenes. As Homer in the Iliad says, "Hellas" (Ἑλλάς) and "Hellenes" were names of the tribe (also called "Myrmidones" ⎜ Μυρμιδώνες ⎜ literaly: "Thousands") settled in Phthia (Phthiotis), later to be  led by Achilles. Proceeding into the second part of the greek mythology and according to the most commonly accepted version of it; Hesiod's Theogony, we will mention as briefly as we can the most notable parts of it, starting with the descendants of the patriarch of the Greeks; Hellen and the rest of his siblings.


 ❖ The sons and grandsons of Hellen:

The architectonic orders of
each tribe clockwise:

Corinthian (Achaean)
Ionic
Dorian
Aeolian
Aeolus - Ruler of Aeolia (later named Thessaly)
patriarch of the Aeolians.

Dorus - Ruler of Epirus and Acarnania (across the north part of Peloponnesos)
patriarch of the Dorians.

Xuthus - Father of:

Achaeus - Ruler of Achaea, later Phthiotis and Thessaly.
☞ His sons would later rule in all Peloponnesos, making the name Achaeans synonym to Peloponessians.

Ion - Ruler of Aegium in Achaea,
patriarch of the Ionians.



Oedipus on the
Sphinx of Thebes
❖ The children and grandchildren of Amphictyon:

• Itonus, father of

・ Boeotus - Ruler of Boeotoia, patriarch of the Boeotians.
・ Iodame
・ Chromia







ethnogeographical map of the Greeks
Leleges & Hellenes in Boeotia
Graikoi ("Greeks") in Epirus
Magnetes in Thessaly
Macedons in Macedonia
❖ The sons of Thyia:
• Magnes - Ruler of Magnesia,
patriarch of the Magnets and father of

・ Perseus - Ruler of Argolis. From his line, the city of Argos was built and after his mother's name, ¨Danaë¨ , he became the patriarch of the Danaans.


• Macedon - Ruler of Macedonia,
patriarch of the Macedonians, and father of

・ Pierus - Ruler of Pieria
・ Amathus - Ruler of Amathia
・ Pindus - Ruler of Pindus


Latinus
King of Latins
❖ The sons of Pandora:

• Graecus - Ruler of Graea, a city in Boeotia and patriarch of the Greeks.

• Latinus - Left for the west and settled in the land that his ancestors (pelasgians - nee: Tyrrhenians / Etrurians) have gone in the past; Italy.
Ruler of Lation (Latium), patriarch of the Latins who would dominate later the Italian Peninsula and as we know, the world.

Quick Tip ☞ Due to the relationship of Latinus and Graecus, the Romans call the Greeks “Graecians” an ethnonym that along with the Roman culture would prevail in the western world as "Greeks".

Quick Tip ☞ The Italian football club Lazio S.S from Rome, has given the colours of the Greek flag to its crest and shirts, in honour of their ancestry.

Quick Tip ☞ Hellas Verona F.C is named like this for the same reason.



NW coast of Peloponnese
Olympia, Elis
❖ The sons of Protogeneia:


• Aetolus - Ruler of Aetolia, patriarch of the Aetolians.
• Opus - Ruler of Epeious in Elis
• Aethlius - Ruler of Elis in Peloponnesos.



☞ He was considered as a champion in all games and was honoured by all the greek tribes all over the greek land.














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