Friday, 27 April 2012

₪ Greeks or Hellenes? Part II

Pottery from Sparta - Laconia
600 BC
   These are the tribes of the Greeks, as they are certified by most of the historians. Now, the most commonly accepted etymology of the name Hellas, is:

'Ελ   ⎜ eng. El   ⎜  meaning Light +
Λάς ⎜ eng. Las  ⎜ meaning earth, soil, stone etc.
Hence, Ελλάς ⎜Hellas ⎜the land of light.

☞ Tip: From the stones that Deucalion was throwing in the cataclysmic myth, the people that raised were named Λαός ⎜ pron. Laós ⎜ meaning folk, people, public,
named after the term Λάς ⎜ eng. Las  ⎜for stones.

  Now, having established the connection of the Pelasgians as true   ancestors of the ¨Greeks¨, we can proceed -finally- answering the  question: 
How should we call the people with all those names; ¨Greeks¨ or ¨Hellenes¨?
The most accurate answer would be “Pelasgians” and their land “Pelasgia”. 
If we would necessarily have to choose among Greek and Hellen, then the term Hellen would have historical priority. What these people had in common as a nation besides kinship, language and customs; as Herodotus says? 
   A national emblem. The oldest common symbol that we can detect
among the Greek people as a national symbol, is was is known today as ¨The Vergina Star¨ and is mistakenly attributed only to the Macedonian tribe. The sixteen rayed star (or sun) has being found all over Greece, in Crete, Rhodes, Cyclades, Mykonos, Lemnos, Thrace, Argos, Sparta, Corinth, Athens, Epirus, Thessaly and of coarse Macedonia, in artifacts, potteries, shields, etc. that date back in 3,200 BC ; and it is believed to represent the twelve Olympian Gods and Hades, Heracles, Nike and Hestia,  ie the sixteen major Gods in the Greek world.

    Looking back in the long history of the Greek people, we can't but to notice that it is very difficult to find the moment when they first felt and acted altogether united as a nation. Despite the fact that half of them once stood together against the -relative- Trojans; and some against the Persians, it would be only after centuries when a Panhellenic Nation would rise on the horizon. Division, discord and disastrous pride; are as it seems in the Greek nature, and even back then, when that thin, short boy with the tremendous arrogance would bring them all under one banner, the bravest and the most famous of the Greeks; the Lacaedemonian Spartans, would leave themselves outside, simply because they wouldn't be the one to lead the ambitious project of a boy. Shortly after, that boy was a man; and when the time came to send back to Athens the first spoils of the war,  Alexander the Great dedicated:
“Αλέξανδρος Φιλίππου και οι υπόλοιποι Έλληνες, πλήν Λακαιδεμονίων”
“Alexander of Philippus and the rest of the Greeks, except the Spartans”

4th Cent. BC Coin
Spartan Syracuse, Sicily
Archaic Age
That was the one and only time that the Greek people stand united in their long history; and shortly after Alexander's death, they tore his empire apart, so ruthlessly and greedily; as a wolf tears it's victim's fleshes, to return to their usual and beloved interest:
Civil War.

 Trivia & Tips:

Empire of Alexander the Great
☞ The eastern ethnonyms YavanimYaunas and Yunan, were given to the Greek people, after Alexander's campaign in Asia. They derived from the term ¨Ionian¨ which represented the Athenian and some Asia Minor tribes. Even though the leading tribe of the campaign; the Macedonians; were an Aeolic and Doric tribe, Philipp II changed the official dialect that would be used in the royal palace into the Ionian one, hence the name.

The battle of Tripolis
☞ The ethnonyms Greek and Yunan are not most welcome today from a very large number of the Greek people. The reason behind this, is that during the Ottoman reign, the Turks would address them as such, with a demeaning manner. Specifically, the Turks addressed the Peloponnesians and Thessalians as Greeks and the Athenians as Yunan.
Both the terms, are historically accurate.
☞ The term Graecylus  ⎜ Γραικύλος ⎜ Grekylos was used by the Ottoman Turks mainly for Greeks that would accepted to bribed in the Sultan's favour. The Turks, despite the fact that had to use bribery for political control within Greece, considered immoral the action of them, resulting to the alternation of the name Graecus. Today, the word Graecylus, is being used by the Greeks to point traitors, immoral people or a disgusting person. In the Greek society, there are three levels of insults more or less.
・Light ordinary insults (vulgar expressions, animal names, family and religious curses etc.
Medium insults Idiot etc (lack of intelligence and intellect are very degrading in the greek society)
Non-Greek or Graecylus (the worst of all)

☞ The ethnonyms RomansRhomaéoi ⎜gr. Ρωμαίοι ⎜and Rhomioí ⎜gr. Ρωμιοί ⎜were used by the Greeks themselves after the Roman conquest of Greece; and especially after the Schism of the endless Roman Empire into Western and Eastern.
Even though we use today the terms Byzantines ⎜gr. Βυζαντινοί ⎜pron. Vyzantiní ⎜for the Greeks of that time, and Constantinople ⎜gr. Κωνσταντινούπολη ⎜pron. Konstantinupoli ⎜for their capital, they always referred to themselves as Rhomaéoi and they called their capital Nova Roma (New Rome) at that time.
Later, when Constantinople would become the first Metropolis in history (as we understand the term today in sociology), the phrase ¨Είς Ταν Πόλη¨ ⎜pron. Is Tan Poli ⎜en. To The City ⎜would become a social de facto expression, and consequently; synonym to the capital of the eastern Roman empire. After the fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman Turks renamed the city to Istanbul, an alternation of Is-tan-poli.
The Roman Empire separated into
Western and Eastern after the Schism

☞ The metals Magnet, Argyll and Copper, were named after the regions of Magnesia, Argos and Cyprus respectively.

☞ The Caledonians of Aetolia ⎜ Καληδώνιοι ⎜pron. Kaledônii ⎜that moved to the east, settled in the Kurdish area around today's Van in Turkey and became the Khaldians, while the rest moved deep into the east, to become the Babylonian Chaldeans.
The Pelestí ⎜Πελεστοί ⎜relatives of the Caledonians, migrated to the south-west and from them; the Philistines received their ethnonym. This region is called Palestine.
Extremely interesting, is the fact that until today; the Palestine people are extremely amiable to the Greeks.

☞ During the Byzantine years of the Eastern Roman Empire, and especially after the enforcement of Christianity by emperor Theodosius I, the term Hellenas was degraded and eventually; forbidden. Shortly after the enforcement of the Edict of Milan by Theodosius, any who would use the name would face death penalty, as the term Hellenas was synonym to pagan, for the Olympian Gods.
Greece have had many centuries of occupation through the eons, such as the Roman and the Ottoman Empire, as also countless wars and invasions. Nevertheless, the worst catastrophes in ancient temples, schools, monuments, statues and theatres have been recorded by the Christians Emperors themselves. In the same era, he close the Platonic Academic, the worldwide intellectual capital, as it was considered paganism for the Christianity. This started the Medieval Dark Ages.

☞ The Greeks were used indeed to travel a lot overseas and make colonies, but perhaps no one would think about the Arctic Circle and its people. The area was called Hyperborea ⎜gr. Ὑπερβορεία ⎜ and the its people Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι ⎜pron. Ipervórii ⎜ from the terms Ὑπέρ + Βορέας, meaning Super North.
The Danaans ⎜gr. Δαναοί ⎜pron. Danaee ⎜ the tribe that ruled Argos, settled in the climatologically friendly Denmark, and got renamed to Danes.
Interesting is the fact that in greek antiquity, the name for a fortified city was called Λάρισσα ⎜pron. Larissa ⎜, while their commander and chief, was called Lars ⎜gr. Λάρς ⎜.
The name is today one of the most popular name in northern Europe; and from Lars derived the term Lord in the english language as well.

Ireland & Britain
☞ Great Britain was quite familiar to the Greeks, as since the Bronze Age even, they have had already stepped foot in the Old Albion and Ireland in search for tin, and particularly in Cornwall. The south-west tip Britain, took its name after the terms
Cárnon + Faolus, meaning the ¨Horn of Aeolus¨.
Κάρνον ⎜pron. Cárnon ⎜
Cornu latin
Kernou gallic
The word horn also means ¨wind instrument¨. In the greek mythology, when the sailors fall into Apnoea (no wind) made plea to Auolus, the God of Wind. Notable tribes that populated Ireland and Britain, were:
Archadia ⎜ Αρκαδία
Jona ⎜ Ιόνα
• The Achaeans became the ¨Achanii¨.
• The Caledons became known as ¨Caledonians¨.
• The Thessalians became known as ¨Taezali¨.
• The Danaans became known as ¨Dumnonians¨ in England, as ¨Fir-Domnainn¨ (¨Tuatha-Da-Danaan¨) in Ireland, and as ¨Damnoni¨ in Scotland.
• The Chalcidics became the ¨Chalci¨ (of whom the renowned football club ¨Chelsea¨ of London, took its name).
• The Negdataes became the ¨Nechnacht¨.

The letter P ⎜ Π was introduced to the Gaelic people by the Greeks that settled in Ireland, as up to that time it was not known to them. That people were the Partholonians, who were also called Parthi by the Scottish people.

 From the Greek terms Σκότος ⎜pron. Scotos ⎜ meaning darkness, and from the term Λάς ⎜pron. Las (Las-Law-Lad) meaning earth / soil in greek, we get the toponym Scotland, meaning ¨the land of darkness¨.
In maps that show Scotland in 14th century, we see cities named as Myrias, Gorias, Findias, Hebrides, and Falias, regions named Argadia and Ionia, the Treshnish Isles
⎜Tris Nisi ⎜Τρείς Νήσοι ⎜Τhree Islands.
Archadia ⎜ Αρκαδία
Iona ⎜ Ιόνα
Very interesting are also the similarities between the Scottish people and the Macedons.
King Portholon that is documented in Lebor Gabala and other British chronicles, was Macedonian. Both Scotsmen and Macedons used extraordinary long spears (Σάρισσα ⎜ pron. Sárisa), while they both played the bagpipe since ancient times.  The term Macedon means ¨tall man¨ from the Doric Μάκος ⎜pron. Makos ⎜ionic. Mêkos ⎜ for length, + the suffix -don. Today the use of the prefixes Mc and Mac in the Irish and British names are common, and mean ¨(the) son of¨. 

☞  The Portuguese capital Lisbon, is named after Odysseus, as he founded the city.

Etymological analysis:
The North Atlantic Current
• Odysseus ⎜ greek: Οδυσσεύς ⎜ modern greek: Οδυσσέας ⎜
• UlyssēsUlixēs - latin
• Olysseus (Ὀλυσσεύς)
• Oulixeus (Οὐλιξεύς)
• Oulixes (Οὐλίξης)

His city was named:
• Olyssavóna (greek: Ὀλυσσαβόνα)
• Olyssabóna - Latin
• Lysabóna
• Lisbóna
• Lisbóa - Portuguese.

Cusco Region, Peru
From Homer's Odyssey, we take information and clues for perhaps a first transatlantic trip. As we know, the main hero gets back home in Ithaca from Troy, after ten years of wondering is the sea, something that is nearly impossible according to modern studies and common sense, as even with the most primitive means, a trip like that would take a maximum of two weeks. Scientifically speaking, the North Atlantic Drift's ability to move a small boat from western Europe to the American continent, is proved.
Notably, goddess Calypso told to Odysseus to have Ursa Major in his left side on his trip:


“...and the Great Arctus (Ursa Major) that they also call Amaxa, that turns and looks the Orion, that only she is non participant in the showers of the Ocean, the star is always shown, it never goes below the horizon” Homer's Odyssey E 273

Meanders in ceramics
In New Mexico
Important also is that the ancient Greeks called ¨Ocean¨ only the open sea that surrounds the Earth, and as in any other case, Homer would have said ¨Pontus¨, meaning the sea (ie. Mediteranean Sea and/or the Euxinus Pontus ie. Black Sea). In addition to that, the information given my Homer is fascinating, as we know that Odysseus visited the land of Faeaces ⎜Φαίακες ⎜Φαιός ⎜Feos ⎜meaning dark, a dark people, leading to only two possibilities:
Africa or America. According to Homer's description about the natural environment of the lands that Odysseus went, leaves us with only possibility the Americas, since the the description that Homer gives, can not be found in the African continent.
Today, we have findings of Minoan axes in Wisconsin and Ohio, U.S.A, while the architectonic in Peru is nearly the same to the Mycenaean one. Creating an even bigger headache (or excitement) to
Golden artifact found in Peru
the letters Χ Σ Υ Ο Τ are engraved
the scientific community, the Quechua languages in Peru, have been identified with Proto-Mycenean characteristics. Interesting enough is that near Tamare, Venezuela, many Dolmens (tomb portals) were found with Greek letters and paintings of wheels, that are supposed to have been introduced in the Americas after the 16th century and the Spanish colonisation. Furthermore, the paintings in Monte Alban and Mitla, are almost identical to to the Mycenaean ones in Knosos and Tirynth in the 3rd millennium BC, while as specialist Pierre Honnore found, the writing script of the Mayans and Incas, is very alike to the Minoan Linear A'.
• Nakas (death, decapitation) -  Νέκυς ⎜Nekys.
• Hana (up) - Άνω ⎜ Ano.

Quick Tip ☞  The name Larisa is very popular in South America today.

Minnesota 1898.
The word ΔΑΥΛΟΣ
is engraved
Fascinating is also the discovery of an ancient artifact; the golden Incas
necklace, that has engraved the Greek letters ΧΣΥΟΤ.
Moving northerly, where New Mexico, Arizona and Utah meet, we see that in the native American Navajo's language, the term Anasazi means ¨The Ancients¨, and was given to the area that Hopi people settled. The Hopi is a tribe different from the other native American people, as they had  theatres, irrigation facilities, acropoles (cities) and fortresses, similar to the Mycenaean ones, whereas their potteries and ceramics that are found, are identical to the Mycenaean style, with Meanders, Ofis (snake) and Medusa depicted.

Aristophanes play Lysistrata
from Λύσις + Στρατός
lit: Disband + Army
☞ Moon,  from the greek Mênas ⎜Μήνας ⎜ for month. Named after the monthly circulation that the moon does.
☞ From the same parallelism, Aristophanes named the female genitals Mouna ⎜ Μούνα ⎜ for vagina. The word is still in use today by its ionic from μουνί ⎜ mouni and it is extremely hideous and vulgar While it is strongly suggested to be avoided by tourists when visiting Greece, yet one of the most popular curse words among the Greeks.
☞ Being also of greek origin, the term (and name) Selene ⎜Σελήνη ⎜ again for moon, derives from the prefix Sel- ⎜ Σέλ- ⎜ for enlightening as a verb or the enlighten as a noun.
☞ From the myths about the moon, and its supposed ability to drive people crazy, the plant Celery ⎜german: sellerie ⎜ received its name ⎜Σέλινο ⎜

☞ In the South-west of China, lays today the province of Yunnan where German archaeological
Amphora from
Yunna province
in China
missions led by Sir Marc Aurel Stein, brought to light 12 ancient Hellenic cities. As we know, ¨Yunnan¨ is the eastern world that stands for ¨Greek¨, since Alexander the Great reached Pakistan and India. The ancient Greeks always identified themselves from the dialect that they spoke, hence Ionians ⎜ Yunans.
The name ¨ China¨ was given by the dismissed soldiers of the greek army, after Alexander's death.
• China - english
• Chine - french
• Sinae - latin
• Σιναί ⎜pron. Sine ⎜-greek
named after the historic figure ¨Sinis the Pityokamptis¨ (Σίνης ο Πιτυοκάμπτης) a known criminal in antiquity that made his name synonym to ¨distractor, annihilator, thief, robber, baneful, looter¨.

South America in Piri Reis' map
☞ The legendary Ottoman Turk Piri Reis, compiled a pre-modern world map in 1513, using eight Ptolemeic maps of Alexander the Great era, and a map of Christopher Columbus, that where all in greek languages.
• These maps have been designed with the method of geographic projection, a method that would be applied much later on the 20th century.
• The maps report with amazing accuracy the distance between Europe and America.
• The Oceanic Institute of the United States of America, recognised the authenticity, as well the age of some the maps with the Radiocarbon Dating method. Two of maps are over 3,000 years old.

Christopher Columbus
☞ Among the places that claim Columbus' origin, is also the greek island of Chios.
• Clues that strengthen this thesis:

1. Columbus was multilingual, possessed academic knowledge, as also specialised sailing knowledge. That would be impossible for a supposed son of a wool weaver in medieval times.
2. He was married to a member of the Royal family of Portugal and he was meeting the Royal family of Spain. That sounds also impossible for a son of a wool weaver.
3. Columbus never wrote in Italian, that is supposed to be his maternal  language as a Genoan.
4. Chios was part of the Republic of Genoa, making the city of Genoa easy to settle at.
5. He was very often addressing himself as Columbus de Terra Rubra ⎜Columbus of the Red Land. All the soil of Chios is red brown.
6. He was fluent in ancient greek. Once again, impossible for a low class person son in medieval times.
7. All his notes on the maps and books, were on greek.
8. In all of his notes, he was writing the letter X instead of H, from the greek X, x ⎜ sounds: Hee ⎜e.g  Xios.
9. In his signature, he signed as χρ ō FERENS ⎜χρ is how Christophorus starts in greek ⎜ Χριστόφορος
Columbus' Signature
• χρ ō (ὦ) FERENS •
10. He named cape Maisi in the Americas as Α.Ω ⎜ (Άλφα Ωμέγα) ⎜ Alpha Omega.
11. Columbus had a house in Chios in the village Pyrgi. His name is still engraved on the entrance.
12. The name Κολόμβος ⎜Kolomvos is a common surname in Chios, up to date.
13. Many of his crew were Chiotans
14. In his writings, he testifies that he was not the only Captain in his family and that his ancestors had always been in the sea.
15. His son Ferdinand, a renowned biographer, states that despite the huge efforts that he made to find any relatives in Genoa, he found absolutely no one, nor a clue.
16. Columbus' cousin's name was Georgio le Grec ⎜ Γεώργιος ο Γραικός
17. Columbus never wrote or claimed that he was from Genoa or Italian.
18. In a theoretical question about the reasons for hiding his identity (fact) and never admitted his greek origin, we could say that Columbus was born in 1451, two years before the fall of Constantinople, an event that would make the region not easy for him to settle as a -supposed- royal aristocrat and orthodox Christian, his life would be rather unpleasant between the Muslim Ottoman Turks, and the catholic West that had the most horrible of the relationships with the Byzantine Empire at the time, due to the Venetians.

Ἡσίοδος • Hesiodus

☞ The story of Graecus and Latinus through Science:
As we know from the myth, Graecus and Latinus were brothers, sons of Pandora with Zeus.
• Graecus first settled in the fertile Thessalian plains and later he founded the city of Graea in Boeotia which is still populated.
• Latinus on the other hand, crossed into the Italian Peninsula and settled in the region of Latium, to become the patriarch of the Latins and the Romans.
That is the myth.
Lets see the facts.
About three and a half thousands years after; and particularly in 2005, a worldwide project from 8 of the best universities in the section of Molecular Biology started a research on the Mediterranean genetic codes; DNA & mRNA.
The University of Stanford in USA, the University of Pavia in Italy, the Aristotelian University of Thessalonica,
the Russian University of Moscow and four more universities came across with some remarkable results.
  Specifically, the research showed that the greek DNA is by 99,6% Caucasian (0,03% Mongoloid and 0,01% Negroid), whereas in comparisons to the Italian DNA, was found a 7% similarity to the area in the north, and a heavy 22% - 45% similarity with the people of the southern part of Italy, while the highest numbers were detected in Apuglia and Calabria.
The title of the research was: ¨The origins, diaspora, and mutation of the haplogroups E and J, and the chromosome Y. Conclusions for the Neolithic colonization of Europe and migration facts about the Mediterranean.¨
The team used more than 44 DNA groups of the chromosome Y and the research was published in the American magazine Human Genetics.
Απογευματινή • Afternoon's Daily
Sunday 6th November 200
  The most impressive conclusion from this research is that the Greek DNA and mRNA, despite the four centuries of Turkish rule and the migration of the Slavic tribes to the south, has not got deteriorated, as easily most of us would assume.
 The beautiful Turks belong genetically in the Mongoloid group, while the brave Slavic Y chromosome pool R1a is different from the Greek one.
Considering the story and Graecus and Latinus, Never before in the human history, has a myth been so verified as such.
  The scientific documentation of the greek migration to Italy, the linguistic similarities of the proto-italian etruscan languages to the proto-greek ones, and of the latin language to the ancient greek one, as also the religion, culture, arts and customs of the Romans, allows us to say that the myth of Graecus and Latinus has a very strong base, and if there would be anyone that a Greek could possibly call ¨cousin¨, then; that would be the Italians.

The Phaestos Disk
  Still, the key that will open the door to a whole new ocean of knowledge about the ancient Greeks and the rest in the Mediterranean, hides within the Phaestos Disc and its encoded language.
A language that keeps within, the many secrets of the past. Historians, anthropologists and most of all; linguists wait the breath cut, for the day that we will wake up and read the pleasant announcement. Crete, an island for five million years, was populated from 200,000 years before. What lays there? Standing on the end of this journey, we can be more sure than ever before that the Pelasgians are indeed the ancestors of the ancient Greeks, and if we would use a more accurate ethnonym for the Greek people, then the most exact; would be Pelasgians for them, and Pelasgia for their country.


❖ The last two decades, a large dispute has been in progress, between Greece and the Republic of Macedonia (as it is recognised by most of the countries today), about the use of the term ¨Macedonia¨ by the modern country. The side of the Macedonian Republic claims ancient historical rights on the use of the term, opposing the Greek thesis of unlawful and culturally inappropriate initiative. 
 The problem arose in 1991, with the dissolution of Yugoslavia, having the formerly known state of Vardaska-Banovina renaming it self into Macedonia. Shortly after, the country printed official banknotes with the famous White Tower of Thessalonica, a city of Greece, and arose as flag the 16-rayed Star that is found in all Greek cities-states since the Bronze Age. Result to this, was the biggest protest in the Greek chronicles. A total of three million Greeks protested against the motion. Later, the Greek PM Konstantinos Mitsoktakis would quote:

☞“There is no reason to get worry or alert, as the national identity of the Macedonian region is more known than the sun. In ten years from now, no-one will even remember the incident” 
Konstantinos Mitsotakis

Banknotes, with Thessalonica
 Ten years after, the former Yugoslav state of Vardaska Banovina got officially recognised my the majority of the united nations as Republic of Macedonia, to sign with golden ink the biggest political failure in the Greek history. The country today is populated by 64% Slavs, 26% Albanians, 5% Turks, 4% Roma and 1% others. In order to see the ethnological map and claims in the area, we have to focus in the two major ethnic groups of the country; the Albanians and the Slavs. The Albanians (whose the country includes a 2% of ancient Macedonia) claim to be an Illyrian race, that in antiquity populated the west coast of Yugoslavia. Having the Albanians out of the historic question, we can focus to the Slavs that are as well the major population of the RoM. The Slavs, moved into the area of modern day Ukraine on the eighth century and settled in the region of Yugoslavia a century later spreading into the area up to modern day Bulgaria. 

The historic region of Macedonia
in modern state borders.

  Today, in the RoM, all the major administrative buildings and facilities are named after Philip II and Alexander the Great whose the ancestors claim to be, whereas there are countless statues and monuments dedicated to them. The history that is written in the books of the public schools of the country, teaches the students, that the Macedonians had no connection the rest of the Greek states. What makes difficult these arguments is that between the Classical Period that Alexander lived and the first Slavic populations in the region, there is a difference of 1100 years. To make things even more difficult, the period that the Kingdom of Macedon was founded, was at the end of the Bronze Age, only to widen the difference to 2100 years between them. In other words, the Slavs didn't even exist at the area at that time. Today, the RoM is in the region that according to the ancient historians (Romans, Egyptians, Hebrews and Persians as well) was called Paeonia, while inside the modern borders, only a 4% of the ancient Macedonian region is included. In addition, both Albania and Bulgaria have inside their modern borders part of it and they could both  get renamed into Macedonia as well, under the same logic. 
  Giving some modern examples, imagine if suddenly, the French Republic, would rename itself into Republic of Rome because parts of its modern state land were once considered to be Roman and suddenly to start printing banknotes with the Colosseum and claim that Julius Caesar was not a Latin but only Roman, meaning themselves, while there have been countless civil wars in the Italian Peninsula among its states. Something like that wouldn't be unthinkable? Imagine if suddenly, Georgia (the neighbour to Turkey country) would rename themselves into the Republic of Persia and start to have claims on the glorious Darius and Xerxes the Great. Actually, it has never been recorded in human history, the occasion of a people to settle in an other land and receive the name of the region as an ethnonym. In the very same logic, the Moroccans and the Algerians would be able to rename selves into French, and rise flag with the Eiffel Tower, or the Indians and the Egyptians to declare themselves as The Republic of Britain and claim that Sir Winston Churchill and William Shakespeare were not Brits.

Mycenaean soldiers playing a table game
The 16-rayed Star is on their capes
Trojan War vessel 1200 BC

Even the claims that find the people of the RoM to see the historical region as bigger and cover all their land, are practically invalid as the extension of Macedonia, would not happen until the glorious Ottoman Empire, would widened the borders for administrative reasons, and naming as "Greece" only the Peloponnese. Most importantly, never before in the history of the area, the people of the region had a singular Macedonia national identity, as they were separated into Greeks and Slavs only. In the 3150 years, the first independent and separate national conscience in the region of Macedonia (including its later greater extend on the Slavic territories) would suddenly and mysteriously appear only after the 40's when Joseph Stalin would try a way to get an exodus to the Aegean Sea, and revived during Josip Broz Tito's reign for the same reasons, in order to proceed with a cultural claim instead of using a Casus Belli. 

Flag of the Communist region of
Yugoslav' Vardaska Banovina.
today-> Republic of Macedonia.
 ☞ “It is of no significance that there is no "Macedonian conscience". For example, during the October Revolution of 1917 there was no Belarus. We created it and no one today denies it”  Joseph Stalin

From the 65% of the Slavic ethnic group of the country, more than 80% are ethnic Bulgarians as is their language that they renamed into "Macedonian", literally a Bulgarian dialect, while most of the people that are over 50 years old,  have Bulgarian national conscience.  Despite that, the new generations that come out of their schools brainwashing, really do believe that they are ancestors of Alexander, and that they are Macedonians. 
Characteristically; the national celebration day of the Republic of Macedonia, is the Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising ⎜bulg. "Ilindensko-Preobrazhensko vastanie" of the Bulgarians against the Ottomans in 1903. Today, the Republic of Macedonia renamed these Bulgarians into Macedonians, an action that has been denied by the ambassadors of France, England, Austria and USA that were present in Bitola during the event, testifying that the revolution was done under Bulgarian banners, from Bulgarians with more than 70 official documents delivered. In addition to that, even the Turkish ambassador did the same report in the his French counterpart. 
During the Ottoman Empire, Macedonia will meet its
greatest extent, as an administrative region of the Turks.
Having any national borders abolished,  the Slavs,
Serbs and Bulgarians, as also the Albanians, that
resided inside the Turkish region of Macedonia would get
to be considered administratively as Macedonians also.
Nevertheless, none of them would consider self as
Macedonian, until the early 40's when Marshal
Josip Broz Tito abetted the
 Slav-Bulgarians of
Vardaska Banovina to claim rights on the ethnonym.
  On the early 90's, and with the mighty Yugoslav giant singing his requiem, the idea of a Macedonianidentity arose again to which the story we well know after 1991. On the other hand, we have though to recognise the fact that if the residents of the RoM, have developed a "Macedonian" identity the last forty years and since the land that they resend was administratively called Macedonia by the legendary Ottoman Turks, they have the right to be involved in the matter, as even though forty years sound as nothing to the Greeks, it does not mean that they are not a cultural era in history, but with the separation of historic Macedonia and modern one established, and perhaps; a different approach by the government of RoM on the matter of propaganda and brainwashing its population with created historical links. Perhaps the best possible solution on the matter, would be the "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".

Their president would state in the Swedish newspaper Svenska Dugbladet cover of June 20, 1993:
☞  “The Macedonian Nation that the Communist International created after the War, is a crime of Titoism and Stalinism ” Zhelyu Mitev Zhelev
☞ Arben Xhaferi, a citizen of the Republic of Macedonia and former president of the Democratic Party of Albanians accused President Kiro Gligorov for “usurpation of the historic and cultural heritage of the Balkan countries, especially for the axiomatic historical antiquities of Bulgaria and Greece”. On the same quotes he states that “There is no real Macedonism, but fictitious”  and that any claim as such “is denied by all scientists” 

Statue of Alexander the Great

There are countless more
of Alexander and Philip II

Among the monuments and
statues that they conciser theirs, are:

the Roman Emperor Justinian I
Tsar Samuel of the Bulgarian Empire

☞ Kiro Gligorov would state in June 3, 1992: 

“We are Slavs. We do not have any connection with Alexander the Great”

The nationalists never forgive him for that statement. 
In his funeral, an open pick-up truck was used instead a presidential hearse.

☞ Today, the nationalist right-winged government of the Republic of Macedonia, has a huge problem considering the national identity of its people as they define it themselves. The majority of them does not accept the term Macedonian, as their customs, origin, nationality and language are Bulgarian. The applications of its citizens to the Bulgarian authorities for a Bulgarian passport are thousands.
The prime minister and president of the nationalistic party in power, Nikola Gruevski has also a Bulgarian passport.

   Considering now the other part, whereas if the Macedons where Greeks or not, the information given on the very start of this post is most enlightening on the matter, but I will mention some more documents:

☞ «Ύστερα έβαλε μπρος (ο Κροίσος, βασιλιάς των Λυδίων)  να εξετάσει ποιοι ανάμεσα στους Έλληνες ήσαν οι δυνατότεροι, που θα μπορούσε να κάνει φίλους. Και ψάχνοντας βρήκε πως ξεχώριζαν οι Λακεδαιμόνιοι και οι Αθηναίοι, οι πρώτοι ανάμεσα στους Δωριείς, οι δεύτεροι ανάμεσα στους Ίωνες.  Γιατί τα έθνη αυτά ήσαν τα πιο γνωστά, όντας τα παλιά χρόνια το τελευταίο Πελασγικό, το πρώτο Ελληνικό. Οι Αθηναίοι ποτέ ως  τώρα δεν ξεσηκώθηκαν από τον τόπο τους, ενώ οι άλλοι ήταν πολυπλάνητοι. Γιατί όσο βασίλευε Δευκαλίων, κατοικούσαν τη Φθιώτιδα, στα χρόνια πάλι του Δώρου, του γιου του Έλληνα, τη χώρα στις πλαγιές της Όσσας και του Ολύμπου που τη λεν Ιστιαιώτιδα. Και αφότου και από την Ιστιαιώτιδα τους ξεσήκωσαν οι Καδμείοι, κατοικούσαν στην Πίνδο με το όνομα  έθνος Μακεδνόν. Από εκεί πάλι άλλαξαν τόπο και πήγαν στη Δρυοπίδα και από εκεί έφτασαν πια εκεί που είναι, δηλαδή στην Πελοπόννησο, και ονομάστηκαν έθνος Δωρικό. Το ελληνικό έθνος αφότου φάνηκε, την ίδια πάντα γλώσσα μιλά -  αυτό είναι η πεποίθησή μου, αφότου όμως ξέκοψε από το Πελασγικό, αδύνατο τότε και στην αρχή και μικρό, αυξήθηκε ύστερα και πλήθαινε σε έθνη, καθώς προσχώρησαν σ’ αυτό κυρίως οι Πελασγοί, αλλά και πάρα πολλά άλλα βαρβαρικά φύλα. Τέλος είμαι της γνώμης ότι το Πελασγικό έθνος πρωτύτερα και εφόσον ήταν βαρβαρικό ποτέ δε γνώρισε μεγάλη δύναμη» 
Ηρόδοτος Α, 57- 58
According to the academics in Skopje,
the Macedonian is not a Greek dialect,
but a completely different language.
Remarkably enough for foreign, I can read:


“Later on, started (Croesus, the king of Lydia) to find who among the Greeks were the best, that he could be friends with. He found, that the Lacaedemonians (Spartans) and the Athenians were the strongest. The first from the Dorians and the second from the Ionians. Because these nations where the most known, as in the ancient years, the first where Pelasgians and the second Hellenes. The Athenians never until today, left their country, while the others (Spartans) were roaming a lot. When Deucalion was king (Father of all Greeks) they resented in Phochis, while at the reigning years of Dorus, the son of Hellenas (grandson to Deucalion), they lived in the land of the valleys of Ossa and Olympus, the land that they now call Histiaeotis. And after they got driven out of Histiaeotis from the Cadmeians, they settled in Pindus (the mountain range of Macedonia) with the name Makednon. From there they changed again land and went to Dryopis, and from there everywhere else, meaning in Peloponnesos, and were named Dorians. The Hellenic nation since it shown (came up) the same language it speaks, for thee it is my belief. After it cut it bounds with the Pelasgians, weak at the time and small at the start (the Hellenic nation) , it grew afterwards and became bigger in nations, as the Pelasgians were part of it and other barbaric tribes came. I am of the opinion that the Pelasgians, at the start as they were barbarians, never saw great power” Herodotus A, 57-58

☞ «Συγκροτούσαν δε το στόλο (τον ελληνικό στη Μάχη της Σαλαμίνας) οι εξής: Από την Πελοπόννησο οι Λακεδαιμόνιοι με 16 πλοία, οι Κορίνθιοι, με τον ίδιο αριθμό πλοίων, το οποίον έδωσαν και εις το Αρτεμίσιον. Οι Σικυώνιοι, με δέκα πλοία, οι Επιδαύριοι με δέκα, οι Τροιζήνιοι με πέντε, οι Ερμιονείς με τρία. Όλοι αυτοί, εκτός των Ερμιονέων ανήκουν στο Δωρικό και Μακεδνόν έθνος, ελθόντες στην Πελοπόννησο  από τον Ερινεόν και την Πίνδον(«εόντες ούτοι πλην Ερμιονέων Δωρικό τε  και Μακεδνόν έθνος, εξε Ερινεού τα και Πίνδου»), και το τελευταίον από την Δρυοπίδα. Οι δε Ερμιονείς είναι καθαυτό Δρύοπες τους οποίους εξεσήκωσαν από τη σήμερον λεγόμενη Δωρίδα ο Ηρακλής και οι Μαλιείς. Εκ των Πελοπονησίων αυτοί ήσαν εις το στόλον (δηλαδή τον ελληνικό στη Μάχη της Σαλαμίνας)» 
Ηρόδοτος Η, 43

 “In the fleet (the greek fleet in the battle of Salamis with the Persians) were: From Peloponnesus the Lacaedemonians (Spartans) with 16 ships, the Corithians with the same number, which they gave to the Artemision (Arcadians) too, the Sikyons (modern Kiato) with ten ships, the Epidaurus with ten, the Troezenians with five, the Hermiones with three. All of those, except the Hermiones, belong to the Dorian and Macedonian nation that both came from Herineon and Pindus, and the last tribe (the Hermions) from Dryopis. Thee Hermions are at all means Dryopians that fled Dryopis when Heracles and Malieis drove them out. From the Peloponessians, these were in the battle.”
Herodotus H, 43

The Rosetta Stone
yet again no greek according to
the academics in Skopije

☞ «Εστίν με ουν Ελλάς και η Μακεδονία, νυνί μέντοι τη φύσει των τόπων ακολουθούντες και τω σχήματι χωρίς έγνωμεν από της άλλης Ελλάδος τάξαι και συνάψαι προς όμορον αυτής Θράκης…» 

Στράβων Γεωγραφικά, 7.

"It is Greek and the Macedonia, following the nature of the lands and the customs , without separation from the rest of Greece"
Strabo, Geografica 7

☞ «Εναντίον Θεών πάντων όσοι Μακεδονίαν και την άλλη Ελλάδα κατέχουσι…»
Πολύβιος στη συνθήκη των Καρχηδονίων με το βασιλιά Φίλιππο
"In the presence of Gods, those that the Macedonia and the rest of Greece rule..."
Polybius on the terms of Carthaginians with king Philip II

☞  «Οι Μακεδόνες καυχιούνται για την καταγωγή τους από τους Αργείους»
(Αππιανός εκ της Μακεδονίας 2).

"The Macedonians brag for their origin from Argos"
Appianus of Macedon II

King Amyntas III of Macedon
☞ «προς δε καί βασιλέι τω πέμψαντι απαγγείλητε ώς άνήρ Ελλην, Μακεδόνων ύπαρχος, εύ υμέας εδέξατο και τραπέζη και κοίτη»
(Ηρόδοτος Ε, 20 ),

"In addition, make known to your King that send you, that a Greek; the Vice King of Macedons, offered you a nice bed and a rich table (hospitality)
King Amyntas of Macedon to the Persian ambassador
Herodotus, E 20
☞ «Άνδρες Αθηναίοι… Αυτός τε γαρ Έλλην γένος ειμί τω αρχαίον και αντ’ ελευθέρης δεδουλωμένην ουκ αν εθέλοιμι οράν τη Ελλάδα… Ειμί δε Αλέξανδρος ο Μακεδών.»
(Ηρόδοτου Ιστορία, βιβλίο Θ’, 45).

"Men of Athens, ...I would not say these words, if I wouldn't care a lot for all of Greece, because I am Greek too and I do not want an enslaved Greece. I am Alexander the Macedonian"
King Alexander I of Macedon on his speech in Athens warning a potential Persian Invasion into Greece.
Herodotus, Istoriae Θ’, 45

☞ «Οι πρόγονοί σας ήρθαν στην Μακεδονία και στην υπόλοιπη Ελλάδα και μας προκαλέσατε μεγάλες συμφορές, χωρίς να έχουν κάνει κανείς από εμάς κανένα κακό. Τώρα που εγώ έγινα βασιλιάς των Ελλήνων, πέρασα στην Ασία, για να εκδικηθώ τις δικές σας αδικίες…. Εξάλλου, βοηθήσατε τους Περίνθιους που αδικούσαν τον πατέρα μου και ο Ώχος έστειλε στρατό στη Θράκη που την κατείχαμε εμείς. Ο πατέρας μου δολοφονήθηκε με συνωμοσία  που οργανώσατε εσείς, όπως οι ίδιοι διαδώσατε με επιστολές σας σ΄όλο τον κόσμο …… Οι απεσταλμένοι σας καταστρέψανε τους φίλους  μας και προσπάθησαν να καταστρέψουν την ειρήνη, που έφερε στους Έλληνες. Εκστράτευσα λοιπόν εναντίον σου, επειδή εσύ ξεκίνησες την έχθρα….»
¨Αλέξανδρος ο Μέγας, Βασιλεύς Μακεδόνων, Ηγεμών Στρατηλάτης της Πανελλήνιας Συμμαχίας, Φαραώ Ρά της Αιγύπτου, Κύριος της Ασίας και της Βορειοδυτικής Ινδίας¨
Αρριανός Β 14, 4.

Alexander the Great
"Your ancestors came to Macedonia and the rest of Greece and did great disasters, with none of us Greeks to have done anything bad to you. Now that I became the King of the Greeks, I crossed to Asia, to revenge your doings..... Besides, you helped the Perintians that harmed my father and Ohos send his army to Thrace that we owned. My father was assassinated by your conspiracy, as you admitted with notes that you so arrogantly spread all over the world.... Your people destroyed our friends, and tried to destroy the peace that was among the Greeks. So I move against you now, because you started it....."
Alexander the Great addressing King Darius the Great
Arrianus B 14,4.

☞ «Το ότι ο Αλέξανδρος ως προς την καταγωγή από την πλευρά του πατέρα του ήταν απόγονος του Ηρακλή, μέσω του Κάρανου και από πλευρά της μάνας της μητέρας του απόγονος του Αιακού, μέσω του Νεοπτολέμου, είναι πλέον αποδεκτά…. Και στο Φίλιππο, που μόλις είχε κυριεύσει την Ποτίδαια ήρθαν ταυτόχρονα τρία μηνύματα. Το πρώτο, ότι οι Ιλλυριοί νικήθηκαν από τον Παρμενίωνα σε μεγάλη μάχη, το δεύτερο ότι με άλογο ιππασίας νίκησε στους Ολυμπιακούς αγώνες και το τρίτο πως γεννήθηκε ο Αλέξανδρος»
(Πλουτάρχου Αλέξανδρος 1 – 3).

"Considering Alexander's' nationality, from his father's side he was descendant of Heracles through Koranus, and from his mother's side he was descendant of Aeacus through Neoptolemous. And to Philippus, that had just conquered Potidaea, three massages went at the same time. The first was that the Illyrians got defeated by his general in a great battle. The second was that Parmenion of Macedon won in the Olympic Games with a riding horse, and the third; Alexander III was born"
Plutarch's "Alexander" 1-3

The Games in ancient Olympia were dedicated to Zeus and took place every fourth summer. 
During the period that Olympic Games would be conducted, all Greek cities-states and kingdoms 
were under the obligation of truce.
In the Games, only Greeks were allowed to participate.
 Royal Macedonian Olympic Winners:
❖ Ευγενείς Μακεδόνες Ολυμπιονίκες:
☞ King Alexander I, came second on the 80th Olympic Games, at 460 BC.
☞ King Archelaus Perdikas, won on the game of Terthipps at the 93rd Olympic Games in 408 BC.

King Philip II of Macedon
3 times winner in the
ancient Olympic Games
☞ King Philip II (father of Alexander III) is three times an Olympic winner:
・On the 106th Olympic Games in 356 BC he run with his horse.
・On the 107th Olympic Games in 352 BC he run with his terthipps.
・On the 108th Olympic Games in 348 BC he won in synoris.

☞ Cliton won on stadion at the 113 Olympic Games in 328 BC.

☞ Damasias of Amphipolis won on stadion at the 115th Olympic Games in 320 BC.

☞ Lampou the Philippisius won on the terthipps of the 119th Olympic Games in 304 BC

☞ The famous Antigonus won on stadion in two times: 
・On stadion at the 122th Olympic Games in 292 BC 
・On stadion at the 123th Olympic Games in 288 BC

☞ The famous Seleukus won the stadion on the 128th Olympic Games in 268 BC.

Personal note from the writer: 

This time there have been some differences with the style that I usually write. The first one is the length of the writing and the second is that for first time, I involve politics in a lingual themed blog. Nevertheless, it was necessary. 
I would like to apologise to all of you, for the uncomfortable size of the post in the nearly impossible mission to compress centuries of history into lines, and because of that, I would really like to thank you for your patience to read it.
With best regards,


Notable Sources:

  1. Homer
  2. Hesiod
  3. Herodotus
  4. Pausanias
  5. Euphorus
  6. Thucydides
  7. Xenophon
  8. Philistus
  9. Aesopus
  10. Anticleides
  11. Antisthenes
  12. Craterus
  13. Demetrius the Chronographer
  14. Hecataeus of Abdyra
  15. Leon of Pella
  16. Menander of Ephesus
  17. Polybius
  18. Ptolemy I Soter
  19. Antipater
  20. Criton of Pieria
  21. Antiochus of Syracuse
  22. Diodorus Siculus
  23. Gaius Asinius Quadratus
  24. Dionysius of Halicarnassus
  25. Callinicus
  26. Appian
  27. Castor of Rhodes
  28. Strabo
  29. Plutarchos
  30. Eratosthenes
  31. Alexander Polyhistor
  32. Androsthenes of Thasos
  33. Hipparcus
  34. Diogenes Laërtius
  35. Sophocles
  36. Aeschylus
  37. Euripides
  38. Aristophanes
  39. Plato
  40. Socrates
  41. Aristotle
  42. Zeno
  43. Diogenes
  44. Epicurus
  45. Anaximander
  46. Alexander the Great
  47. Philip II
  48. Heracletus
  49. Hypatia
  50. Euclid
  51. Archimedes
  52. Pericles
  53. Klemomenes III
  54. Philopoemen the Megalopolitan
  55. The New York Times
  56. National Geographic
  57. Apogeumatini News
  58. Massachusetts Technological Institute
  59. Oxford University
  60. Cambridge University
  61. Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna
  62. Encyclopædia Britannica
Diod. 17.1.5, 17.4.1;
Plut, Alex 2.1-2,
Fortuna 1.10 = Moratia 332a;
Justin 11.4.5, 7.6.10-12,
Theop. (FGTH US F3SS – Tzetzes, ad Lycophr 1439);
Paus. ‘Description of Greece’ 1.9.8, 7.8;
Velleius Paterculus: “The Roman History” Book I.5;
Isocrates: ‘To Philip’ 32;
Herod. 5.22.1-2, 8.43;
Thuc. 2, 99, 3;
Curt. 4.6.29)
Herod. 9.45;
Diod. 16.93.1;
Arrian 2.14.4, 3.18.11-12, I.16.10, “Indica” XXXIII;
Plut- Alex. XXXIII
Polyb., IX.35.2
(Loeb, W.R. Paton), IX.37, 38.8;
Isocr, “To Philip”, 5.139, 5.140, 5.8;
Callisth. ‘Oration of Demosthenes’ 2.3.4.-5, 2.4.5, 2.4.7-8
Curtius 3.3;
Arrian ‘Anab. Alex’ 2.14. 4, 3.27.4-5;
Pausanias, ‘Phocis’ VIII.4,
Eleia VIII, 11 [Loeb]) ; Strab. VII.Frg. 9
[Loeb, H.L. Jones]), VII. Fr 7.1, 10.2.23;
Catalogues of Women and Eoiae 3 [Loeb, H.G. Evelyn-White])
(Curt. 3.3.6, 3.7.3, 3.12.27, 4.1.10, 4.5.11, 4.5.14, 4.6.29, 4.8. 13-14, 4.10.1, 5.6.1, 5.7.3, 5.7.11, 6.9.35, 7.5.36, 7.6.1, 7.6.35;
Liv. XXXI.29.15, XLV, 32.22;
Cicero Orations; Ceasar ‘Civ. Wars’
111.103.3; Vel. Patercul. ‘Roman history’
I.5; Justinus Un. History 7.1, 11.3.6;
Aelian ‘Var Historia’ VII.8, 12.37(39);
Pliny ‘Natural history’;
Tacitus ‘Annals of Imperial Rome’ Chap. 8 pg 221;
Persian inscr. of ca 513,
Persian story of Zulqarneen,
Bahram Yasht 3.34;
Edicts of Ashoka V & XIII;
Maccabees 1:10, 8:18,
Megillah 11a, Dan 11:2, 10:20,
Isiaiah chap. 19.20, 19.23,
Joel Cahp 3.v6,
Habacoum cap. 2.v5;
Josephus ‘Antiquities of the Jews’ Book 11 par 337, 109, 148, 184, 286, Book 8 para. 61, 95, 100, 154, 213, Book 10 para. 273, Book 12 para. 322, 414,
Philo of Alexandria, Maimonides; Babylonian Diaries Diary No -168. A14-15)