Monday, 25 April 2011

₪ Deus Vult: The murder of Zeus and Abraham's Dark Ages.

Warning: This article might contain strong, coarse, and foul language among other profanities and politically incorrect remarks. 
If you are easily offended, you should drink some vinegar and bite your thumb better click away on the Bright Side of the Internet.




Diogenes' search for a Human
Jules Bastien-Lepage
One of my favourite comic artists; the ingenious and cunning Arkas, once quoted that "It is a great bless to be born a Greek, and it is a great bless to die as one. The in-between though might be a bit of a problem".
Indeed, the above is painfully real; we Greeks cope with a vast plethora of issues, yet; we come with some perks too. What I've personally savoured the most is our instinctive drive to challenge and question everything that is served to us. Perhaps an inherited characteristic since the first Sophists and Empiricists, we have this natural inclination to seek for a deeper and more sensible explanation for the answers that are so readily given. This trait is what we have inherited today as the science of logic and reason.

I can distinctly recollect the moment that changed everything about the way I saw the Human as a being and his creation; and therefore, our role in a universe that was created by superior powers. Most children back in the late eighties used to watch television, do sports, or simply play outside. For me, though; all the fun was in swimming in an ocean of books. History volumes, dictionaries and encyclopaedias were my best treat, and Greek mythology was the most exciting of them all. It was when I first read about the Olympian Gods when I asked myself for the first time; what happened to those Gods, where did they go and why did they disappear. Most important of all; I questioned how is it possible to change the way that the world was created, and by whom; therefore having suddenly another God, who is so astoundingly different from the previous ones.
To my youthful eyes, each civilisation had their own deities, and that was perfectly reasonable. Nevertheless; an event in which a culture abruptly changed radically the way of how they saw the world; was utterly nonsensical and contradictive as to who we really are thenceforth. If we change what we believe in, then we are not the same as who we were when we did so.

Heraclitus weeping over the World 
Johannes Paulus Moreelse
This hard slap on my six years old face crashed into pieces the adamant values that I was brought up with; Hellenism and Christianity. It was the first time that I consciously saw myself as an Agnostic and decidedly doubted of what is it to be a Greek. A religious struggle would begin between my sense of logic and the horrible guilt that society judgementally burdened me, and this was a terrible, terrible offence that they had me endure. They intimidated me, then threatened me with eternal damnation, and eventually ostracised me as a leper pariah in a public school that was not ready to have little shits questioning the Lord in public.

Many today define Greece as the cradle of Orthodox Christianity and its people as spiritually and religiously devout. The historical truth though is completely antithetical; the cultural and theological identity of Hellenism's relation to Christianity is exactly what the concept of democracy was to Mao Zedong; nonexistent.

The Abrahamic religions, -which Christianity is a part of, as an expansion of Judaism- were created by and intended for the people of the Near East. All significant cultures and empires in the crux of the Old World were polytheistic; Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Greeks and Romans believed that the world was created and ruled by multiple deities; something that suited their societies, culture, and social structures.

The key element here is that these people had absolute and unquestionable religious freedom; they could believe in anything they want as long as they didn't cause other problems. The Persian Empire for example; was never concerned about what Babylonians or Memphians believed in, merely because a concept of enforcing a theological ideology to its citizens was completely nonsensical for the civilised people.

DemocritusProtagoras
Salvador Rosa
In archaic Greece; the Ionian cities-states saw the appearance of men that thought of the likelihood that an earthquake might be a natural phenomenon or that a plague breakout was the result of squalor instead of Poseidon's wrath. For the first time in history; people start to think, to question and to seek knowledge through reasoning and dialogue as the foundation of philosophy for all sentient beings. These men were the first to seek an answer about how was the cosmos forged pragmatically; if there is actually a Creator or natural evolution of the universe and all things within it, and they actually took the challenge to explain the very nature herself mathematically and through science.
Today we have the tendency to distinguish between the different branches of a man's education and expertise; one can be either a physicist or geologist or a philologist, etc., but it would be entirely erroneous to assume that the ancient Greek philosophers were just men sitting by the sea thinking what is the meaning of life.

Pythagoras was a philosopher that practised algebra and geometry. Archimedes was a philosopher that first took physics, mechanics and engineering to a higher level. Ptolemy was a political philosopher that mapped all northern Europe two thousand years ago, and Democritus was a philosopher that practised alchemy, chemistry and first saw the molecular theory.
They were physicists, chemists, mathematicians, geometricians, geographers, astronomers, mechanics, engineers, historians, lawgivers, and lawyers, (and the list goes on) at the same time.

By the time of the Hellenistic Era; the Greeks not only had established Democracy, physics, mathematics, arts, etc., as the concepts that our world runs today; but also achieved a phenomenal advance in technology and mechanics.
Should we be less modest; it is more than certain that this civilisation was technologically unstoppable; Thales of Miletus found static electrism at 600 BCE, and two hundred years later Democritus would be the first man in history to talk about the Atomic theory. Aristarchus of Samos first explained a Heliocentric System, and Eratosthenes of Cyrene would confirm it by verifying not only that the earth was round, but her exact perimeter too, at 250 BCE. In Alexandria; Heron invented the first steam engine and automatic machines, and a few years later the Greeks in Syracuse would create the first computer in history; the Antikythera Mechanism.
It is sound to say that a marvel civilisation with that level of phenomenal knowledge, and that pace in advancement; would have sparked the industrial revolution much, much faster than the late eighteenth century, and nothing seemed able to stop them; not even war.
When Rome arose to power, the Greeks didn't cease to progress, and the Romans benefit an enormous deal from them; the Latin culture really took off after the successful subjugation of the Greek city-states and their people.
The Roman point of view about their relationship with the Greeks is mentioned characteristically in the play Casina by the Roman dramatist Plautus where the Greeks quote the famous "Conquered, we conquer", and Cicero; -among many others- would write countless works praising the Hellenes about their culture. War can not stop mental evolution, on the contrary; it enhances it. Unfortunately, there was one thing that could turn off the lights, and all this would be crushed brutally by a force that came like a sledgehammer; religion.

The Death of Socrates
Jacques-Louis David
Judaism and its little sibling, Christianity; were the first religions in the greater area known as the cradle of civilisation, that introduced not only the idea of a single God; but most importantly the values that commanded absolute and unquestionable devoutness to one Single, Almighty and Infallible God. For the first time, we see a religion which demands passiveness, subjugation, and a new group of people that should never complain about their life, nor seek to improve it, for they would be rewarded in an afterlife. This phenomenal religious theory has everything that we understand today as the ideal tool to shape the way of how people think -or don't- and eventually their actions. In other words; the Abrahamic religions are the perfect ideology for practising power over humans, and the cunning Romans were the first to understand that this ideology had immense political benefits for their rule over sophisticated people with a higher sense of freedom.

With the establishment of Christianity as the state religion; the now multiethnic Roman Empire achieved to pass numerous obstacles considering their rebellious subjects by implanting the sentiment of fear and the introduction of sin as a concept to its subjects. A religiously obedient and passive human is consequently the same as a citizen too, and someone that has to obey in every moment of his life, can not lift up the sword so easily; for he will be condemned to Hell forever. All of this came with an amazing bonus also; an everlasting Paradise in the afterlife. None of the other competitors offered so many extras, and this brand new product would be ready for business as soon as the marketing and public relations departments worked on the right promotion.

The Hellenic language was the cornerstone of Christianity, and it all starts with the complete redefinition of the most critical terms and idioms related to important theological and religious matters for Christianity. In Dedecatheism; the concept of God had nothing to do with the one of Yahweh in Judaism. The Olympians were the children of the Titans who were born out of Chaos; the primordial Void.
There are many versions of this theogony, but where all do agree is that they recognise the existence of Nothing as a universal theory. A void that awakes, sets itself in motion, and creates life. The term Theos in Greek never meant God in the sense of a supreme higher power, rather classify the type of the deity; technically speaking, the Olympian Gods were inferior to the Titans, the Giants and other primordial deities.
They didn't have infinite knowledge, unlimited power, or omnipresence, nor they possessed perfect goodness in the sense of loving humans as Yahveh does. On the contrary; they can be tricked, they do not excel beyond their field of knowledge, they have numerous flaws, and most importantly; they can actually be mortally wounded and die.

The Fall of the Titans
Cornelis van Haarlem
In Iliad; Homer tells us that when the tide of the battle turned in favour for the Achaeans, the god of war Ares and the goddess Aphrodite (technically a Titanid from Uranus' genitals) came to help the Trojans on the battlefield. They got themselves so severely wounded that they would have found the hard way how things are in the afterlife if the king of Argos Diomedes didn't change his mind and let them live out of respect. Elsewhere, during the Aload Giants' revolt; Ares was rescued at the last moment by Hermes, while Heracles had Poseidon defeated in battle and wrestled his father Zeus to a draw.



In fact, the mighty Zeus got himself in big trouble when Gaea gave birth to a terrifying monster for one and only reason; to make the gods bleed. When Tuphōn laid siege to mount Olympus, all of the Olympians fled in horror to Egypt for their lives. Eventually, the goddess of wisdom Athena boldly reminded to the Lord of the Skies that his pair of testicles is not only for confirming his title as the All-Father; but also mandatory for a God king. As he was left with no choice, Zeus sailed to meet the foe, lost the battle with Tuphōn, and found himself almost crucified with his tendons cut and awaiting execution when the cunning Hermes saved the day and Zeus's arse.
Moral of the story is that the gods were not invincible nor out of death's reach. Should we add to that fact that Zeus had slept with his grandmother, his aunts, his nieces, his sister, his daughter, his granddaughters, a chap, himself and a couple of animals; then we understand that these guys might have had a few imperfections.

Many other names saw their meaning change entirely; an angel would be no longer a messenger, but a divine deity. Likewise; a demon was something satanic instead a state of spiritual well-being. Greek became the perfect tool for manipulation and spreading the word because of its complexity and plasticity. An enormous database of tenths of different interpretations is ideal for anyone who wishes to play with the words and project an entirely different meaning just by ignoring a single punctuation in the scripts. Therefore, critical canonisations such as "Beliving or not, do seek" would be promoted as "Do believe, and do not seek" from those that were more comfortable with people accepting their dogma unquestionably.

The conversion of Emperor Theodosius
Pierre Subleyras
The Greeks could not see how this new religion was related to their culture in any way; and when the favourites of the Lord fail to spread the Gospel trough teaching, free will ceases to exist and the sword follows. Christianity became the most brutally enforced religion that Europe had yet seen, with despicable pogroms of violence against many, and the Hellenic culture was the very centre of all this.
Scientists like doctors were now exercising demonic acts, philosophers and academics were committing blasphemy and preached the Devil, heretic schools and colleges closed, libraries and thousands of profane textures were introduced to fire, and sacrilegious temples were demolished. The pagan Greeks had no rights nor liberties, and even the act of addressing themselves as Hellenes was forbidden under pain of death, thus; renaming themselves to Romans in order to stay alive. Christianity annihilated and razed Hellenism in the most destructive way; by switching off that source of enlightenment that raised humanity to another level, and the closing of Plato's Academy by Justinian was the final stroke that sank Greece and consequently Europe into the Dark Ages.

War has always been the favorite sport of mankind, and it might sound politically incorrect; but it does somewhat makes sense to attack other people for taking their land, resources and women, as it covers the fundamental primitive human needs for shelter, food, and reproduction; respectively to the above.
On the other hand, the idea of killing other humans because of their thoughts is completely nonsensical; and until the appearance of Judaism, never before a culture considered themselves racially superior to others, as the chosen ones by -their own- God. The concept of religious proselytism and the attempt to convert other humans was never seen before in antiquity, nor had humanity ever experienced war for that reason thus far; the Israelites would be the first in recorded history to attack other people because they identified their neighbour people as heathens. Don't get me wrong here; religious conflicts had existed from a cultural point of view in history before but never did one nation actually went to war with another because their God told them to do so.

In Deuteronomy, we read a shocking testament of what religion can produce: "But in the cities of these peoples, which Jehovah your God is giving you as an inheritance, you must not allow any breathing thing to live. Instead, you should devote them completely to destruction, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, just as Jehovah your God has commanded you; so that they may not teach you to follow all their detestable practices that they have done for their gods, causing you to sin against Jehovah your God."
Holy fuck. It is beautiful indeed, isn't it? Well, it gets even better. The Israelites ever resented polytheists and idolaters, and feelings became actions during the Jewish revolt against the Romans in Cyprus in 117 CE, where they slaughtered a quarter of a million Greeks because they did not share the same beliefs. But it wouldn't stop there; the Jews perpetrated the massacres of thousands of Christians, several times; with the carnages of Yemeni Jewish Himyar tribe and the Sasanian conquest of Jerusalem amongst the examples.

Battle of the Milvian Bridge
Giulio Romano

Of course, the Hebrews and the Israelites do not have the exclusive privilege of killing other humans based on what their God told them to do. The Jewish religious intolerance, bigotry and intransigence were adopted in full scale by Christianity, which picked up the baton and everything and all went straight to bloody hell (pun intended).
In the Battle of the Milvian Bridge; Constantine the Great would be the first man to raise the Holy Cross in the name of God, win the battle and parade with the decapitated head of Maxentius. Pure class triumphed, and after this point the concept of killing humans took a whole other meaning.

Bishops had a social status equal to that of kings, and the Pope had one of an emperor. Soon the most vicious authority in Europe established a theocracy that would have real Kings and Emperors under its will. They could denounce, excommunicate, and condemn anyone that didn't go with their ways, abolish Kingdoms, and declare Holy Wars of conquest.
The rise of Islam didn't do much better either; implacability, fanaticism, and absolutism were shared values within the Muslim world, and all three Abrahamic religions would soon enter a barbarous and savage dance of extinguishing each other with unprecedented hate and bigotry.
Milkhemet Mitzvahs, sacred Jihads and Holy Crusades sank three continents into horror and darkness for centuries justifying a divine casus belli war and annihilation, and as soon as they were done killing infidels and heathens; they continued the bloodbath within their own religions for heretics, apostates and sectarians. After all; God Wills it.
The Spanish Reququinsta, the Holy Inquisitions, the Protestant reformations and the massacres in the Americas that obliterated entire civilizations are only a few of Christianity's moments that spread the gospel and the love of the Lord. In the Muslim world; Shias and Sunnis would preoccupy themselves with killing each other for the proper definition of Allah's peace, faith and love.

The Sack of Rome by the Barbarians
Joseph-Noël Sylvestre
Many do the mistake to think that the main reason that we address the periods of Postclassical Era and Middle Ages as the Dark Ages of mankind is due to the ever going wars of that time or the ceasing of philosophy. Indeed, these wars were phenomenal in savageness, and philosophy did cease for centuries, but what sank Europe into darkness was the fall of the Roman Empire in combination with the intellectual blackout that Christianity brought. Franks, Saxons, Britannics and others, were tremendous warriors with no match. When the Western Roman Empire collapsed, these people partially succeded in applying the Roman social model within their societies, and their newly found kingdoms; but where they substantially failed was to inherit the Roman spirit. They had nothing to do with the higher philosophy, the superior arts, and the technological advancements of the Romans, and this brought the abolition of a social structure that was based on this spirit that kept the order within the society, and these new players in the game made it possible for the transaction from civil law to Theocracy, to take place. And the only thing worse than a nouveau riche is a nouveau autocrate with absolute power, a lack of culture, and a God complex.
The fact that someone kills for his benefit, as terrible as it sounds, it does make sense somehow, I could understand this. What is terrifying though is the actual reason why. Monks, priests and holy inquisitors would torture, savage and murder without the slightest discomfort, with a clear conscience and clean hands, anyone who would even dare to lay their gaze upon them. Yes, Christianity leads by far the race for the most toxic religion.

Ignorance, fear, and superstitions became the norm in a world of endless war. Perhaps the most notable exception is the ascension of the Arabic -and consequently Muslim- culture at the fifth century that saw the rise of philosophy once more, and thanks to them for recording and keeping all the manuscripts that were thought lost, we can have a better understanding of the world as it was back then. One man's darkness is another's enlightenment some might say, and the Arabs truly delivered. An amazing civilisation of advanced philosophy, artistic expression, architectural wonders and science, flourished at that time. When others were drilling holes to relief headaches and bad spirits, the Arabs were performing complicated surgical operations.

Sacrifice of Isaac
Caravaggio
Fast forward to the twentieth century and the most monstrous act of our time, the Holocaust; caused the death of six million Jews just because they call their god Yahweh. World war two was over, the international community awarded the Jews by giving them another people's land, and the newly (re)born state of Israel proceeded in a terrifying apartheid that has almost completed the genocide of the indigenous Muslim Palestinians with the blessings, the money and the military support of the Christian West.

Now, if this should take place five hundred years ago, it would somewhat make sense; barbarities by a primitive people wouldn't be something new. But the fact that this is happening right now, at this very moment; it gives the situation a whole other meaning. In the dawn of the twentieth-first century, where we are so proud of our advancements as a kind; with International Laws, Human Rights, Laws against crimes of War, and many other equally lethargic organisations, the state of Israel uses this absolute protection that is provided by the West, to expand and fulfill a divine order that was given three thousand years ago. At the same time; the -mostly- Christian NATO plays the terrorism card and comes in to save humanity from the monstrous warriors of Allah that want to invade Europe and America. The problem though is that NATO does not just liberates the oppressed, but also comfortably appoints who is going to rule them as well. In this silent alliance between Christians and Jews against the Muslims, we see all the double standards, the bias, and the brainwashing hypocrisy of these religions. Today is them two; tomorrow it might be the Muslims if they ever got to power.

Aristotle with a Bust of Homer
Rembrandt
The problem today is that people want desperately to get offended. A small number of Jews get offended by a woman just for sitting next to them, or if you only miss the signs of what they believe in and politely wish them Merry Christmass. Some Muslims get insulted if your country's flag has a cross, draw a comic about their prophet, or simply touch the Quran. Christians on the other side, get provoked if you talk about evolution and might get a racist chill up their spine if you let them know that Middle Eastern Israelites like Mattithyahu and Shemayon have got a whitelift as Matthew the Apostle and Saint Peter respectively, in order to make Christianity more applicable in the West.

An additional problem with the religious fanatism is that the canons many people support today were written centuries ago.
There are actually people out there, that define their thoughts and feelings, their lives and actions, by something that someone who lived eons before wrote three thousand years ago. And if this kind of worked out during the Middle Ages, since the Renaissance and on we have a very swift pace of development that in the latest fifty years moves with astronomical speed, that leaves no place for superstitions and tired dogmas.
In a world that we can call and see people on the other side of the planet, or even go to the moon; we see humans that follow blindly primitive principles that were the social norms in a time that torturing someone to death was the best way to settle psychological issues.

Many shall pull the Antisemitism card, cry for Islamophobia and attempt to point out Anti-Christian sentiments. Others might try to find a verse in their holy books that talks about peace and love, nevertheless; with just a little effort we can find verses in the same books that command the opposite. The truth is that these three religions have always been used as the most acceptable reason to hate and kill each other. I do not claim that Moses, Jesus or Muhammad commanded to go by the sword, but those that sculptured their philosophy and ideology into a religion; did, and they abused this extraordinary influence on people's minds and hearts to blindly do their bidding.

Some of the most notable figures that are portraited are:  Epicurus - Heraclitus - Democritus - Boethius - Pythagoras - Euclid - Archimedes - Zeno of Citium - Timon of Athens - Diogenes of Sinope - Alcibiades - Protogenes - Apelles of Kos - Strabo - Ptolemy - Socrates - Platon - Aristotle - Alexander the Great - Anaximander - Empedocles - Averroes - Alcibiades - Parmenides - Plotinus - Zoroaster - Xenophon - Aeschines - Antisthenes - Leonardo da Vinci - Raphael - Michelangelo - Donatello - Il Sodoma - Pietro Perugino - Timoteo Viti - Donato  Bramante - Baldassare Castiglione - Francesco Maria I della Rovere - Giuliano da Sangallo
 "Scuola di Atene"

"The School of Athens"

by
Raphael
Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Two thousand years of ethnoreligious catechizing are not so easily removed from the mind, but what common sense dictates us to do is to cease using other people's theology as the criteria to evaluate them. The official representatives of God, have taken a big step forward, and slowly but steadily embrace science and a more modern approach to what religion is at the moment. The Catholic church tries to be more transparent and takes action against the serious issues of pederasty, and the corruption that always went through behind the walls of the Vatican. Fundamental theories such as women's equal position in society, divorce and abortions are finally under the microscope, and we might see a serious improvement in the years to come by all three religions. Their leaders now stand together in a spirit of unification, urging all people to reapproach the way they see each other, and a new wind of rational thinking seems to be on its way dancing through windows and doors of cathedrals, mosques and synagogues. For the first time in history, people from all these religions stand united against bias, hate and violence and a new era seems to arise. What we need; is not to stop following our beliefs but to use them as they were initially meant for; a philosophical view of the values of life, for there are true powerful teachings in the Talmud, the Quran and the New Testament, that can make us far better human beings, and this; requires the will to think. 






Etymological Analysis



❖ Deus Vult "God wills it."

☛  The rallying cry of the First Crusade, originating in the exclamation of the multitude after the completion of Pope Urban II.'s address at the Council of Clermont, 1095. 



  • Deus [Ζεύς • ΖΕΥΣ] ‣ God.
  • Vult  [Βούλισις • ΒΟΥΛΙΣΙΣ] ‣ Suffix; Will.

  • a.12 ∴ God ‣ English ∵ 
  • a.11 Got ‣ Old High German ∵
  • a.10 ∵ Guthan ‣ Proto-Germanic ∵ "God."
  • a.09 ∵ Ghuto ‣ Proto-Germanic & Sanskrit ∵ "that which is invoked."
  • a.08 ∵ Gheu ‣ Proto-Germanic & Sanskrit ∵ "invoke."
  • a.07 ∵ Deus ‣ Latin ∵ "God."
  • a.06 ∵ Δεύς  ΔΕΥΣ /ðéfs/ ‣ Hellenic Laconian∵ "Zeus." 
  • a.05 ∵ Ζεύς  ΖΕΥΣ /zéfs/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ 
  • a.04 ∵ Ζεύς  ΖΕΥΣ /sdeús/ ‣ Hellenic Mycenaean ∵
  • a.03 ∵ Dzyḗws /dzeús/ ‣ Proto-Hellenic ∵ "Sky God, Zeus."
  • a.02 ∵ Dyeu /dieú/ ‣ Proto-Hellenic ∵ alternative "to gleam, shine (from Sky)"
  • a.01 ≝ ǵʰew /γh.eús/ ‣ Proto-Hellenic ∵ "Heaven, Sky."

  • b.09 ∴ Will ‣ English ∵ 
  • b.08 ∵ Wille ‣ Middle English ∵
  • b.07 ∵ Willa ‣ Old English ∵
  • b.06 ∵ Wiljô ‣ Proto-Germanic ∵
  • b.05 ∵ Vult ‣ Latin ∵
  • b.04 ∵ Volo ‣ Latin ∵ third-person singular present active indicative of volō
  • b.03 ∵ Voulo ‣ Euboean Hellenic∵
  • b.02 ∵ Βούλω  ΒΟΥΛΩ /ˈvu.lo/ ‣ Hellenic ∵ "to think, decide."
  • b.01 ≝ Βούλομαι  ΒΟΥΛΟΜΑΙ /ˈvu.lo.me/ ‣ Hellenic ∵ "to will, wish, want, be willing, decide."




Zeus and Hera
Annibale Carracci


Combined Relatives, Derivatives & Descendants 
  • Western Germanic LanguagesTheology, diagacht, diadhachd, Dia, Will, day, willful, willpower, volunteer, failure, false, fault, foul, spill, spoil, devil, ball, etc.
  • North Germanic LanguagesTheologie, teologi, Gott, Gud, Guð, willa, dag, freiwillig, gewillig, vilig, wille, vilje, feil, fejle, fel, bilun, föll, fallstefja, avfall, valde, anbefalle, djævla, jæavla, vaal, valen, val, falske, flater, ausfall, etc. 
  • Romance Languages: Théologie, theología, Deus, Dieu, Dias, Dios, Déu, Dumnezeu, Teo, Bénévole, volontà, voluntario, fallare, falo, falha, falla, fallimento, faulto, fiasko, falhei, falle, etc.
  • Semitic Languages & etc.: Volontarja, teoloġija, etc.

☛  Same root with Pelasgic wel- / WEΛ-. 


☛  Alternate names for Zeus in the Hellenic dialects include: 
Aeolic Δάν ‎(Dán)Doric Ζάν ‎(Zán) & Ζάς ‎(Zás)Epic Ζήν ‎(Zḗn)Boeotian Θιός ‎(Thiós) & Σιός ‎(Siós)Cretan Τάν ‎(Tán)

☛  The terms Theos [Θεός • ΘΕΟΣ • tʰe.ós • God] and Días [Δίας • ΔΙΑΣ • ˈði.as • alt. Zeus] derive directly from the same root. 

☛  Oldest attested form of the prefix *ǵʰew is found on Khyte Gaea, an epithet for the Greek primordial entity of Earth. The phrase means "poured earth" figuratively; "divinely shaped earth".
Today, the term [Χύνω • ΧΥΝΩ • khúnō] still means "pour".




❖ Devil

☛   The most powerful spirit of evil in Christianity, Judaism, and Islam who is often represented as the ruler of hell


  • Dia [Διά • ΔΙΑ] ‣ Prefix; Through.
  • Valo  [Βάλω • ΒΑΛΩ] ‣ Suffix; to slander.

  • c.04 ∴ Devil ‣ English ∵ 
  • c.03 ∵ Diabolus ‣ Latin ∵
  • c.02 ∵ Διάβολος  ΔΙΑΒΟΛΟΣ /ðiávolos/ ‣ Hellenic ∵ "slanderer."
  • c.01 ≝ Διαβάλλω  ΔΙΑΒΑΛΛΩ /ðiabállō/ ‣ Hellenic ∵ "to change someone's thoughts/will"

  • d.03 ∵ Dia ‣ Latin ∵
  • d.02 ∵ Dia ‣ Euboean Hellenic ∵
  • d.01 ≝ Διά  ΔΙΑ /ðiá/ ‣ Hellenic ∵ "through, thoroughly, entirely, by means of"

  • e.02 ≝ Βάλλω   ΒΑΛΛΩ /ˈva.lo/ ‣ Hellenic ∵ "to hit, throw, cast, hurl, strike, touch, put, place, tumble, attack, fire, shoot, accuse, reprove, criticise."


Combined Relatives, Derivatives & Descendants 
  • Western Germanic LanguagesDevil, Diafol, Diawl, Deil, Diabhall, oval, bullet, bhailistíochta, obelisk, ball, balloon, phallus.
  • North Germanic LanguagesTeufel, Duivel, Djævelen, Djävulen, Djevelen, Djöfullinn, phallisch, fallische, pfeil, obelisk, bal, boll, ball, bolti, pil, pijl.
  • Romance Languages: Diabolus, Diablo, Diable. Diavol, Diabo, Diavolo, boule, palla, ballo, bola, ball, balun, pila, telum, obeliscus.

Historic Trivia: The terms "pilum/pila" for the Roman projectile javelins, and its derivatives for arrow in North Germanic languages (pilpijl, etc.) come from the Hellenic ovolós [ὀβολός • ΟΒΟΛΟΣ • spit, rod, arrow, nail], for something you hold and hit, throw, shoot, or assault with. 
In the archaic Hellenic world, the standard monetary currency for transactions was a bronze, copper, or silver rod of standard weight and dimensions. The maximum amount of those rods that a man could hold in his hand was six, thus holding a Drachma; a handful grasp. Later when the Greeks in Ionia first established coinage by replacing these rods with coins, still kept their initial name as obolós. Consequently; the small flat, spherical, or oval objects still had the meaning of a projectile item used to shoot or attack with, that eventually coined the term "ball" as a synonym. Therefore, we have terms like ballistic, ballista, cannonball, bullet, ballot, etc. 
As the maximal decimalisation for Drachma, the Greeks developed the unit talanton, which was equal with thirty-six thousand oboloí, or the mass of fifty-seven pounds of melted silver or gold that was required to fill an amphora. Having such vast amount treasure was indicative of someone's aptitude and competency, thus giving us the modern term talent (see Kim Kardashian/Kanye West).

☛ Some important values and salaries were: Half a drachma (3 obols) was the wage of a young apprentice, and one drachma (approx. 60 USD today) was the daily salary of an unskilled worker while proficient professions like lawyers, doctors, and architects; could make up to 6 six drachmas a day. The purchase of a house would cost -at maximum- a thousand drachmas (three years salaries) and a skillful slave was valued three hundred drachmas. As for the dailies; bread was one obol, a liter of olive oil was one drachma, a sheep was eight, and a pair of shoes cost twelve drachmas. Two bottles of wine were one obol and most important of all; a fair lady would provide her services for half a drachma. 
Finally; the Parthenon cost 469 talents. The approximate estimation of a drachma today is ca. sixty US dollars, thus; $60 x ₯6000 x T469 ≃ 170m US dollars.

☛ King Solomon wasn't only wise but appreciated gold very much indeed. 
His private income was 666 Israeli talents, (approx. 240 million US dollars) each year. 
A bit of a cliché isn't it?






❖ Lucifer

☛   The "Light Bringer", "Light Bearer", "Morning Star".
The leading Archangel and God's most beloved one. He was as cast away from the Heavens for his rebellion and defeated in the War of Heaven by Archangel Michael. 

  • Leūk [Λευκός • ΛΕΥΚΟΣ • léf.kos] ‣ Light.
  • *Fer [Φέρω • ΦΕΡΩ • ˈfɛ.ro] ‣ Suffix denoting the bearing of something. Eng.alt: *pher.

  • c.06 ∴ Lux ‣ English ∵  
  • c.05 ∵ Lūx ‣ Latin ∵ /luːks/
  • c.04 ∵ Loūks ‣ Proto-Italic ∵ /lūks/
  • c.03 ∵ Leūx ‣ Hellenic Euboean ∵ /léfks/
  • c.02 ∵ Λευκός  ΛΕΥΚΟΣ /le͜w.kós/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ 
  • c.01 Lewka /le͜w.ká/ ‣ Proto-Hellenic ∵ "bright, shining, light in color; white."

  • c.06 ∴ Ferō ‣ Latin ∵  
  • c.05 ∵ Φέρω  ΦΕΡΩ /pʰérō/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ "bring, bear, carry, cause." 


The Genius of Evil
Guillaume Geefs


☛  Key Point: From the term Leukos derive a vast plethora of term in many languages. 

Combined Relatives, Derivatives & Descendants 
  • Western Germanic Languages: Light, luxurious, illuminate, lucid, luna, lynx, etc.
  • North Germanic LanguagesLicht, luxuriös, beleuchten, klar, lune, luchs, luxe, inlichten, verlichten, helder, lyset, luksuriøse, belyse, klare, los, ljus, lyxiga, belysa, klarsynt, lodjur, lys, luksuriøse, lyse, etc.
  • Romance Languages: Lucem, luxuriosi, illuminare, lucidus, luce, lussuoso, lucida, luna, la lince, lumière, luxe, illuminer, lucide, lune, lynx, lumière, luxe, illuminer, lucide, luz, lujoso, iluminar, lúcido, el lince, luxuoso, o lince, lumină, etc
  • SlavicLaukas, lengvas, lūšis, луч (ray, beam), луна (luna), легкая (light), лигхт, (light) луксузан (luxurious), lekki, luksusowy, lehká, luxusní, etc.


☛ Interesting Trivia: The suffixes *fer is the evolution of *for, and it is included in plenty of words that want to signify the literal or metaphorical bringing of something. 
E.g. Christophorus, Phosphorus, Metaphor, Ephor, etc.

  Not to be confused or associated with terms with the etymological suffix *phic *phy*pher, or *fer from -graph(f)er. Ultimately from -gráphos, the idioms canonate the use of forming nouns referring to various types of writer or author. 
E.g. Biographer, Geographer, Bibliography, Photography, Telegraphic, Topographic, etc.





❖ Angels

☛  A primarily divine being found in Abrahamic and other religions. Original meaning "messenger".


Archangel Raphael warns Adam and Eve
William Blake


  • f.09 ∴ Angel ‣ English ∵ 
  • f.08 ∵ Aungel ‣ Middle English ∵ alts. angel, ængel, engel.
  • f.07 ∵ Ængel ‣ Old English ∵ alt. engel.
  • f.06 ∵ Angele ‣ Anglo-Norman ∵
  • f.05 ∵ Angiluz ‣ Proto-Germanic ∵
  • f.04 ∵ Angelus ‣ Latin ∵
  • f.03 ∵ Angelos ‣ Euboean Hellenic∵
  • f.02 ∵ Άγγελος  ΑΓΓΕΛΟΣ /áŋ.ɡe.los/ ‣ Hellenic ∵ "messenger."
  • f.01 ≝ ΑΚΕΡΟΣ /´a.ke.ros/ ‣ Proto-Hellenic ∵ "mounted carrier."





❖ Demons

☛  An evil supernatural spirit that is thought to possess a person or act as a tormentor in hell.

  • g.04 ∴ Demon ‣ English ∵ 
  • g.03 ∵ Daemon ‣ Latin ∵ 
  • g.02 ∵ Dæmon ‣ Euboean Hellenic ∵ 
  • g.01 ≝ Δαίμων  ΔΑΙΜΩΝ /daímōn ‣ ˈðe.mon/ ‣ Proto-Hellenic ∵ "a spirit or divine power."





☛ Historical Trivia: The ancient Greeks did not consider daemons to be malicious spirits of torture but rather the opposite. The term denotes a benevolent being that caused a state of spiritual happiness and inspiration. 
In Hesiod's Theogony, the tragic Phaëton becomes a celestial daemon, whereas the ills released by Pandora are deadly deities, Keres, and not daemons. 
From Hesiod again, the people of the Golden Age were transformed into daemons by the will of Zeus, to serve mortals benevolently as their guardian spirits.
Homer tells us that the words theoí (θεοί "gods") and daímones (δαίμονες), although distinct, they are similar in kind. Plato elaborates and mentions in Cratylus that the word daimōn (δαίμων "deity") is synonymous to daēmōn (δαήμων "knowing or wise"). 





❖ Holocaust

☛  The mass murder of Jews under the German Nazi regime during the period 1941-5. 
More than 6 million European Jews, as well as members of other persecuted groups, were killed.


Women with Boulders
Georg Mayer-Marton


  • Holo [Ὅλος • ΟΛΟΣ • h.ólos • Whole] ‣ see analysis below; Catholicism.
  • Caust [Καύστος • ΚΑΥΣΤΟΣ • káfstos • Burnt] ‣ Appendix: Forms of rule or government. 

  • h.07 ∴ Caustic ‣ English ∵ 
  • h.06 ∵ Causticus ‣ Latin ∵ 
  • h.05 ∵ Kaustikos ‣ Hellenic Euboean ∵ 
  • h.04 ∵ Καυστικός  ΚΑΥΣΤΙΚΟΣ /kafstikós/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵
  • h.03 ∵ Καυστός  ΚΑΥΣΤΟΣ /kaustós/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵
  • h.02 ∵ Καίω  ΚΑΙΩ /ˈkɛ.o/ ‣ Hellenic Koine / Mycenean ∵
  • h.01 ≝ Κάϝιω  ΚΑϜΙΩ /káwi.ō/ ‣ Proto-Hellenic ∵





❖ Ecclesiology

☛  The theological study of the structure and the architectonic of Christian churches and cathedrals. From Ecclesia and -Logía.

  • Ecclesia  [ἐκκλησία • ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ • ekklēsía • Church] ‣ Christian Temple 
  • Logia [-λογία • -ΛΟΓΙΑ • -logía] ‣ Suffix denoting the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a discipline. 

  • i.05 ∵ Ecclesia ‣ English ∵ 
  • i.04 ∵ Ecclēsia ‣ Latin ∵
  • i.03 ∵ Ἐκκλησία  ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ /ekklēsía/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ "assembly."
  • i.02 ∵ κκλητος  ΕΚΚΛΗΤΟΣ  /ekklētos/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ "assembled, summoned."
  • i.01 ≝ κκαλέω   ΕΚΚΑΛΕΩ /ekkalēo/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ from Ex Kaléō "to summon."
  • Ex  [Ἐξ • ΕΞ • Ex] ‣ "Out off, from"  
  • Kaléō [Καλέω • ΚΑΛΕΩ • ka.lé.ō] ‣ "to call, summon, invite, invoke."

  • j.08 ∵ Logic ‣ English ∵ 
  • j.07 ∵ Logique ‣ Middle French ∵
  • j.06 ∵ Logica ‣ Latin ∵
  • j.05 ∵ Logika ‣ Hellenic Euboean / Dorian ∵
  • j.04 ∵ Λογική  ΛΟΓΙΚΗ /loʝici/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ fem. "the art of Reasoning."
  • j.03 ∵ Λογικός  ΛΟΓΙΚΟΣ /loʝikós/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ "the person that applies Reason."
  • j.02 ∵ Λόγος  ΛΟΓΟΣ /ló.ʝos/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ "reason, idea, word"
  • j.01 ≝ Λέγω  ΛΕΓΩ /lé.ʝo/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ "say, tell, speak, think."


☛  Key Point: From the Hellenic Kalō [Κᾰλῶ • ΚΑΛΩ • ka.lō] we receive the term "call" in the English language. 

☛ Interesting Trivia: The term Ex [Ἐξ • ΕΞ • Ex] for "Out off, from", always keeps before vowels, e.g. "Ex Athenon" (from Athens). 

 For consonants, it always switches to Ek [Ἐκ • ΕΚ • Eκ]. e.g. "Ek Delphôn" (from Delfi).

 Exception: Eg [Ἐγ • ΕΓ • Eʝ] before Ββ, Γγ, Δδ, Λλ, Μμ. e.g. "Ek Gonos  Eggonos" (descendant). 

 Latin is excluded from the rule where only the case of Ex is applied. E.g., "Ex Machina". 

☛  Historical Trivia: The term "Deus ex Machina" (God from the machine), was introduced to the Romans from the Dorian Hellenes that founded the first cities in southern Italy Magna Grecia. Originally from the concept of "Apò/ék Mēkhanês Theós", where during a theatrical play; a seemingly unsolvable problem is suddenly and abruptly resolved by the contrived and unexpected intervention of a God or Hero to move the story forward, to surprise the audience, or bring the tale to a happy ending. The phrase was eventually adopted in real life events in situations where someone intervenes successfully the very last moment. 

e.g. "The Spartan king Menelaus challenged the young prince of Troy to a duel for Helen’s return. Menelaus soundly beats Paris, but before he can kill him and claim victory, Goddess Aphrodite interferes and spirits Paris away inside the walls of Troy".





❖ Theology

☛  The study of religious faith, practice, and experience; the study of God and God's relation to the world. From Theos and -Logía.



Saint Augustine of Hippo
Philippe de Champaigne



  • Theos [Θεός • ΘΕΟΣ • tʰe.ós • God] ‣ see analysis above.
  • Logia [-λογία • -ΛΟΓΙΑ • -logía] ‣ see analysis above.


☛  Derivative Terms: Anthropology, Archaeology, Astrology, Biology, Chronology, Cosmology, Ecclesiology, Ecology, Etymology, Geology, Gynaecology, Meteorology, Neurology, Paleontology, Philology, Symbology, Technology, etc. 






❖ Theocracy

☛  A system of government in which priests rule as Emperors in the name of God. From Theos and -Cracy.



Pope Alexander VI
Bernardino di Betto Pinturicchio


  • Theos [Θεός • ΘΕΟΣ • tʰe.ós • God] ‣ see analysis above 
  • Cracy [-κρατία • -ΚΡΑΤΙΑ • -kratía] ‣ Appendix: Forms of rule or government. 

  • k.05 ∵ -cracy ‣ English ∵ 
  • k.04 ∵ -cratie ‣ Middle French ∵
  • k.03 ∵ -cratia ‣ Latin ∵
  • k.02 ∵ -kratia ‣ Hellenic Euboean ∵ 
  • k.01 ≝ Κράτος  ΚΡΑΤΟΣ  /krá.tos/ ‣ Hellenic ∵ "Might, Strenght, Power, Dominion, State."


☛  Derivative Examples: Aristocracy, bureaucracy, democracy, hierocracy, isocracy, plutocracy, thalassocracy, etc.





❖ Orthodoxy

☛  Following or conforming to the traditional or generally accepted rules or beliefs of religion; specifically Orthodox Christians and Jews. From Orthos and Doxa.



Christ Pantocrator
Icon in Saint Catherine's Monastery


  • Orthodoxia [Ὀρθοδοξία • ΟΡΘΟΔΟΞΙΑ • ˈɔrthədɒksia • Orthodoxy] ‣ Religious Denomination 

  • l.01 ≝ Ὀρθός  ΟΡΘΟΣ /ortʰós/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ 
"straight, upright, erect, just, righteous, upright true, exact decent (geometry) right (grammar)"


  • m.02 ∵ Δόξᾰ  ΔΟΞΑ /ðókʰ.sa/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ "opinion, judgement, belief, glory, honor."
  • m.01 ≝ Δοκέω  ΔΟΚΕΩ /ðo.ké.o/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ "to expect, think, suppose, imagine."

☛  Derivative Examples: Orthodontist, orthopedic, paradox, heterodox, etc. 





❖ Catholicism

☛  The faith, practice, or system of Catholic ChristianityFrom Katá and Hólos and the suffix *ism.

  • n.05 ∵ Catholic ‣ English ∵ 
  • n.04 Catholique ‣ Middle French ∵
  • n.03 ∵ Catholicus ‣ Latin ∵
  • n.02 ∵ Katholikos ‣ Hellenic Euboean ∵
  • n.01  Καθολικός  ΚΑΘΟΛΙΚΟΣ /katʰolikós/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ "Universal; all-encompassing."


Crocifissione di San Pietro
Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio


  • o.01 Κατά  ΚΑΤΑ /ka.tá/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ "downwards, along, through, in, towards during for, for the purpose of, according to, in conformity with."

  • p.03 ∵ Ὅλος  ΟΛΟΣ /h.ólos/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ "whole, entire, perfect, complete, utter, generally, on the whole, (with negative): at all, actually."
  • q.07 ∵ -ism ‣ English ∵ "suffix that forms abstract nouns of action, state, condition, doctrine."
  • q.06 ∵ -isme ‣ Middle French ∵
  • q.05 ∵ -ismus ‣ Latin ∵
  • q.04 ∵ -ismós ‣ Hellenic Euboean ∵
  • q.03 ∵ -ισμός  -ΙΣΜΟΣ /-ismós/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ from stem of verbs in -ίζειν
  • q.02 ∵ -ίζειν  -ΙΖΕΙΝ /-ízen/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ present active infinitive of -ίζω
  • q.01 ≝ -ῐ́ζω  -ΙΖΩ /lé.ʝo/ ‣ Hellenic Koine ∵ 



☛  Derivative Examples for HóloHolism, holocaust, holodeck, hologram, holograph, holohedral, holomorphic, holonym, holotropic, etc.

☛  The term has given plenty loans to many modern languages, especially the Northwestern Germanic ones. Most important is the idiom All:"all, alla, alle, alles, whole, geheel, hele, hela halo, uile, alt, allt, etc.

☛  Derivative Examples for Cata: Catabolic, catachresis, cataclysm, catacombs, catalogue, catalytic, catapult, cataract, catastrophe, catatonic, catechesis, categories, category, etc.

☛  Derivative Examples for *ism: Proselytism, Paganism, Agnosticism, Atheism, Christianism, Antichristianism, Judaism, Antisemitism, Islamism, Antiarabism, etc.

☛  Used to form verbs from nouns, adjectives and other verbs; to do, doing. The suffix is universal in more than 150 languages. 








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